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OBSERVATIONS lead to FACTS which are summarized into LAWS which are EXPLAINED by THEORIES


a general statement based on observations to which no exceptions are known


an explanation for a law

Physical Property

properties that do not change composition when measured

Chemical Property

properties observed when matter changes composition


Chemistry is a central, empirical science that studies the physical and chemistry properties of matter, the physical and chemical changes matter undergoes and the energy associated with those changes.

Specific Heat

the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of a specific amount of a substance one degree Celsius with no change in state. Expressed in J/g.

Chemical Formula

composition of elemental symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance


mass per unit volume


the smallest particle of an element that maintains its chemical identity through all chemical and physical changes


the smallest particle of an element that can have a stable independent existence

Atomic Weight

weighted average of the masses of the constituent isotopes of an element; the relative mass of atoms of different elements


an atom or group of atoms that carries a charge

Structural Formula

a representation that shows how atoms are connected in a compound


substances consumed in a chemical reaction


substances produced in a chemical reaction

Simplest Formula

the smallest whole-number ration fo atoms present in a compound (aka empirical formula)

Molecular Formula

a formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance

Atomic Mass Unit

a unit used for stating atomic and formula weights (one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope)


6.022 x 10^23 (Avogadro's number) of a substance. the mass in grams of one mole is equal to the molecular weight of the substance

Limiting Reactant

a substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of products that can be formed in a reaction

Chemical Change

a change in which one or more new substances are formed

Kinetic Energy

energy that matter possesses by virtue of its motion

Potential Energy

energy that matter possesses by virtue of its position


state of matter that moves to fill its entire container


state of matter that has a set fluid volume


state of matter that is rigid and holds its shape


anything that has mass and can be observed (with some exceptions: light)



Hydrogen Peroxide*


Sulfuric Acid*


Nitric Acid*


Acetic Acid*




Carbon Monoxide*


Carbon Dioxide*


Sulfur Dioxide*


Sulfur Trioxide*
















Hydrocarbon + O2 --->

CO2 + H2O

Law of Constant Composition

different samples of any pure compound contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass

Law of Conservation of Energy

energy cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reactions or in a physical change, it must be changed from one form to another

Law of Conservation of Matter

no detectable change occurs in the total quantity of matter during a chemical reaction or a physical change

Dalton's Theory

1. made of atoms 2. atoms are identical and differentiable 3. atoms cannot be created or destroyed or transformed 4. compounds in whole number ratios 5. compound's atoms are constant

Theoretical Yield Concept


Mass of Reactants Concept


Percent Yield Formula


Finding Molecular Weights from Atomic Weights


Finding the Simplest Formula given Elemental Percentages


Identifying Limiting Reactants


Calculate the Specific Heat from Temp changes

(heat in J)/(mass)(temperature change in C)

Know Mole Concepts


Finding Percent Composition from Formula

=(g of x)/(g of total) x 100%

Tips on how to balance molecular equations

1. one timers 2. common elements across compounds (biggest coefficient first) 3. free/uncombined elements go last

Know how to distinguish between phases at macroscopic level

Macroscopically, what distinguishes a solid? hardness, shape is maintained what distinguishes a liquid? adapts to container shape what distinguishes a gas? occupies entire volume of container

Know how to distinguish between phases at microscopic level

Macroscopically, what distinguishes a solid? hardness, shape is maintained what distinguishes a liquid? adapts to container shape what distinguishes a gas? occupies entire volume of container

Physical Change

a change in matter than does not alter composition or identity

Percent Yield

=(actual yield)/(theoretical yield) x 100%


=(number of moles of a solute)/(number of liters of a solution)

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

the amount of matter and energy in the universe is fixed

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