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Key terms ofor the heart on page 344.


encloses the heart and the proximal ends of the large blood vessels to which it attaches.


the visceral pericardium, protects the heart by reducing friction.


the thick middle layer which consists mostly of cardiac muscle tissue that pumps blood out of the heart chambers.


the inner layer which consists of epithelium and connective tissue that contains many elastic and collagenous fibers.


upper chambers whihch have thin walls and recieve blood returning to the heart.


the lower chambers which recieve blood from the atriaand contract to force blood out of the heart into the arteries.

Tricuspid Valve

a large valve with three cusps which lies between the right atrium and the right ventricle.

Papillary Muscles

small mounds of cardiac muscle tissue.

Pulmonary Valve

a valve with three cusps.

Bicuspid Valve

a valve through which blood passes from the left atrium into the left ventricle.


the exit of the heart and a large artery.

Aortic Valve

the base of the aorta which has three cusps

Coronary Arteries

the first two branches of the aorta

Cardiac Veins

veins of the heart whose paths roughly arallel to those of the coronary arteries which drain blood that has passed through myocardial capillaries

Coronary Sinus

an enlarged vein on the hearts posterior surface which empties into the right atrium

Cardiac Cycle

the actions which take place in the heart in a cycle

Functional Syncytium

a mass of merging cells that funtion as a unit

Cardiac Conduction

clumps and strands of specialized cardiac muscle tissue whose fibers contain only a few fibrils.

Sinoatrial Node

a key portion of the cardiac conduction which is a small elongated mass of specialized cardiac muscle tissue just beneath the epeicardium


a machine used to generate the heart's rhythmic contractions

Atrioventricular Node

a mass of specialized cardiac muscle tissue


a recording of the electrical changes in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle


thinner tubes within the arteries


the reuction of the diameter of the blood vessel


the smallest diameter blood vessels


microscopic vessels that continue from the capillaries and merge to form veins


contracting ventricles which squeeze blood out and into the pulmonary trunk and aorta


the arterial pressure drops

Cardiac Output

the volume discharged from the left ventricle per minute

Pulmonary Circut

consists of vessels that carry blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart

Systemic Circut

carries blood from the heart to all other parts of the body and back again.

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