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The Western Fur Trade

coureurs de bois :

a French or French-Indian trapper of North America, esp. of Canada

La Verendrye:

French-Canadian explorer who established a chain of trading posts in New France, thus breaking Britain's economic stronghold on the region

The Cree

a member of a North American Indian people of Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Montana

the Mandans

A Native American people formerly living in villages along the Missouri River in south-central North Dakota, with present-day descendants on Lake Sakakawea in west-central North Dakota

Hudson Bay Company

English corporation, formed in 1670, which held a monopoly over trade in the region watered by streams flowing into Hudson Bay in Canada


a contagious disease unique to humans

The Metis:

they consist of descendants of marriages of Woodland Cree, Ojibway, Saulteaux, and Menominee aboriginals to French Canadians, Scots and English

Lord Selkirk:

A Scottish philanthropist who sponsored immigrant settlements in Canada at the Red River Colony

Battle of Seven Oaks

took place on June 19th 1816 during the long dispute between the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company, rival fur-trading companies in western Canada


the "father of New France," was born between 1567 and 1570 in the town of Brouage, a seaport on France's west coast and died in 1635 in Québec


was the ketch that sailed into Hudson Bay in 1668-1669, in the first trading voyage for what was to become the Hudson's Bay Company two years later


exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices

The Assiniboine:

also known by the Ojibwe name Asiniibwaan "Stone Sioux", and the Cree as Asinîpwât are a Native Canadian/First Nations people originally from the Northern Great Plains area of Canada, specifically in present-day Saskatchewan and parts of Saskatchewan Alberta and southwestern Manitoba around the US/Canadian border


young Chipewyan woman who was one of the most outstanding female diplomats of the fur trade and acted as guide, interpreter and peace negotiator for Governor Knight of the Hudson's Bay Company at York Factory

Hudson Bay:

a large (1.23 million km²), relatively shallow body of water in northeastern Canada.

Peter Pond:

was a soldier with a Connecticut regiment, a fur trader, founding member of the North West Company, an explorer and cartographer

Alexander Mackenzie:

was a Scottish-Canadian explorer

Mackenzie River:

originates in Great Slave Lake, in the Northwest Territories, and flows north into the Arctic Ocean


: a concentrated food consisting of dried pulverized beef, dried berries, and rendered fat

George Simpson

a Scots-Quebecer and employee of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC). His title was Governor-in-Chief of Rupert's Land and the Indian Territories in British North America (now Canada) from 1821 to 1860

Red River Settlement:

a colonization project set up by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk in 1811 on 300,000 km² of land granted to him by the Hudson's Bay Company

York Boat:

an inland boat used by the Hudson's Bay Company to carry furs and trade goods along inland waterways in Canada

Red River Cart:

a large, two-wheeled cart drawn by oxen and made entirely of wood, usually oak

James Cook:

an English explorer, navigator and cartographer

Simon Fraser

a fur trader and an explorer who charted much of what is now the Canadian province of British Columbia

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