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Crowd action

the rebellion of the common people of the colonies

Salutary neglect

Policy of Britain during the colonial period when the British allowed American colonists to rule themsleves as long as the rule also benefited Britain.

Sir Robert Walpole

a British Whig statesman, considered to the first prime minister, who dominated politics in the reigns of George I and George II

Radical whigs

A group of British political commentators who feared the British monarchy and Parliament because it posed a threat to liberty. They warned against the "corruption" of the monarchy.

Patronage powers

the 'bribing' of the yeoman farmer by the Southern Gentry, which eventually benefitted both the farmers and the politicians


to furnish money or to assist with the payment of money

War of Jenkin's Ear

war that began because of Spanish atrocities to British merchants in the West Indies

Molasses Act

A British law passed in 1773 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade by bribing and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws led to revolution.

The Currency Act

forbade colonists from issuing paper money or establishing land banks

Imperial control

British control of the colonies justified by the monarchy

Charles II

in 1660 ascended the English throne and created a string of new settlements: The Restoration Colonies; a generous but extravagant man who was always in debt, he rewarded 8 aritocratic supporters with a gift of the Carolinas, an area long claimed by Spain and populated by thousands of Indians.

James, Duke of York

brother of Charles II; took possession of the conquered Dutch province of New Netherland, renaming it NY, and conveyed ownership of the adjacent province of New Jersey to two of the Carolina proprietors.

Fundamental Constitution of Carolinas

1669 prescribed a manorial system with a powerful nobility. In North Carolina, poor families from Virginia, refused to work on large manors and grew grain and tobacco on modest family farms. In South Carolina, the colonists refused to accept the Fundamental Constitutions and white settlers who had migrated from the overcrowded sugar producing island of Barbados, created their own version of the hierarchical European social order.


aka Society of Friends; a radical Protestant sect; wanted to restore the simplicity and spirituality of early Christianity. Pennsylvania was a refuge for them.


one who is against war or the use of violence

William Penn

Charles II bestowed the colony on this man in payment of a large debt owed to his father. Born to wealth and seemingly destined for courtly pursuits, this man had converted to the Society of Friends (Quakers), and used his money and prestige to spread its influence. He designed Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers.

Restoration Colonies

New York, New Jersey, N. Carolina, S. Carolina, and Pennsylvania.


According to this theory, the colonies were to produce agricultural goods and raw materials, which English merchants would carry to the home country, where they would be reexported or manufactured into finished products.

Revenue Act of 1673

imposed a "plantation duty" on sugar and tobacco exports

Dominion of New England

a new royal providence, formed in 1686 by the Lords who revoked the corporate charters of Connecticut and Rhode Island and merged them with the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies.

Sir Edmund Andros

a former military officer, appointed by James II as governor and empowering him to abolish the existing legislative assemblies.

Glorious Revolution of 1688

Protestant Parlimentary leaders carry outa bloody coup when wife of James II gives birth to potential Catholic heir to the thrown. This sparked rebellions in the colonies.

Mary II and William III

Mary II(James daughtrer) and her husband take thrown and agree to rule as constitutional monarchs & accept bill of rights. Limited power.

John Locke

Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rights, people enter social contract to create government with limited powers. If a government did not protect these rights or exceeded its authority, Locke believed the people have the right to revolt. The ideas of consent of the governed, social contract, and right of revolution influenced the United States Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. He also rejected Divine Right theory.

Policy of Aggressive Neutrality

A policy used by the Iroquois Indians to keep relations with both sides during the imperial wars.

Treaty of Utrecht

1713. Britain gets Newfoundland, Acadia and Hudson Bay region in Canada; the treaty established supremecy and peace in north America.

South Atlantic system

A trade system that brought wealth to Europe, and economic, political human tragedies to Africa. Everyone was getting rich by trading slaves sugar and tobacco.

Slave Society

Economic type of society based upon the predominant use of slave labor (mostly Africans) to produce surplus products.


when the colonists kept bringing over new slaves from africa

Northern Maritime economy

Shipped wheat, bread, corn, sugar, slaves and tobacco across the Atlantic; part of West Indian Trade. Transatlantic commerce expanded. Population went up.

Colonial assemblies

American representative assemblies that wished to limit the powers of crown officials (following Glorious Revolution). They gradually won control of taxation and local appointments. Their rising power created an elitist, not democratic political system.

Crowd actions

Colonists used crowd actions to enforce values

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