..., the political, economic, and social principles and policies advocated by Karl Marx that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
The 3 pillars Nicholas I used to bolster his regime. Orthodoxy- the strong ties between the gov. and church Autocracy- absolute power of the state. Nationalism- respect for russian traditions
a revolutionary group that assasignated the officilas and planned to kill the tsar- March 2 bombs killed him
Russia's last tsar, he witnessed the fall of Russia from great power, to the entering into WWI and total collapse
A 1904-1905 conflict between Russia and Japan, sparked by the two countries' efforts to dominate Manchuria and Korea
Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. Granted full civil rights and a popular parliament- Duma.
an elected governmental council in a Communist country (especially one that is a member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
The government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The only mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.
V. I. Lenin
Believed in Marxist Socialism: 1) Believed capitalism must be destroyed. 2) A social revolution was possible in backward Russia. 3) The need for highly trained workers partly controlled by revolutionaries like himself.
..., Supporter of Lenin who helped in the takeover of Petrograd and the Bolshevik revolution
Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI
The council led by moderate Marxist Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries, which opposed and rivaled the Provisional government. Leon Trotsky became chairman in 1917.
An order that told the military units to only listen to the soviet and not the provisional goverment
Land, Peace, and Bread
What the Bolsheviks promised the Russian citizens. Land for the hungy pesants, suffering soldiers, and hungry workers
The rebellion that occured in 1921; there was mutiny in Russia's navy for food. This made Lenin realized that some changes had to be made, so he created the New Economic Policy.
Treaty of Brest-litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
New Economic Policy: developed by Lenin/ Allowed peasants to sell excess crops & allowed small factories and businesses to be under private ownership. (Govt. still controlled major businesses & factories)
Five year plan
Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after WWI. tried to improve heavy industry and improve farm output, but resulted in famine
system in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it.
The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.
country where a single party controls the government and every aspect of the lives of the people
A secret agreement between the Germans and the Russians that said that they would not attack each other
The Soviet Union and the Eastern European countries that installed Communist regimes after World War II and were dominated by the Soviet Union.
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
This man came up with the idea of communism/dialectic socialism that said that two classes have always battled against each other to form another class that will battle against its antithesis until the synthesis is one equal class working with each other for each other
the son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881)
(1881) son of Alex II, increased use of secret police, censorship, exiles to Siberia, Russianunification to suppress non-Russians, pogroms
wife of Nicholas II who was in charge of the government while Nicholas was on the front lines