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53 terms

Russian Revolution

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Marxism
..., the political, economic, and social principles and policies advocated by Karl Marx that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
Capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
Socialism
an economic system based on state ownership of capital
Proletariat
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
Bourgeoisie
..., educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution
tsar
a Russian Emperor
"Orthodoxy,Autocracy, Nationalism"
The 3 pillars Nicholas I used to bolster his regime. Orthodoxy- the strong ties between the gov. and church Autocracy- absolute power of the state. Nationalism- respect for russian traditions
People's will
a revolutionary group that assasignated the officilas and planned to kill the tsar- March 2 bombs killed him
Russification
Policy imposing Russian customs and traditions on other people.
Pogrom
organized violence against jews
Nicholas II
Russia's last tsar, he witnessed the fall of Russia from great power, to the entering into WWI and total collapse
Alexandra Rasputin
When Nicholas left for the front, who was left in charge of the government?
"bloody sunday"
...
Russo-Japanese war
A 1904-1905 conflict between Russia and Japan, sparked by the two countries' efforts to dominate Manchuria and Korea
October manifesto
Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. Granted full civil rights and a popular parliament- Duma.
Duma
This was a legislative parliament in Russia with real political power
soviet
an elected governmental council in a Communist country (especially one that is a member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
Provisional Government
The government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The only mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.
V. I. Lenin
Believed in Marxist Socialism: 1) Believed capitalism must be destroyed. 2) A social revolution was possible in backward Russia. 3) The need for highly trained workers partly controlled by revolutionaries like himself.
Leon Trotsky
..., Supporter of Lenin who helped in the takeover of Petrograd and the Bolshevik revolution
Josef Stalin
dictator of the Soviet Union, turned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state
Bolsheviks
Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI
Petrograd Soviet
The council led by moderate Marxist Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries, which opposed and rivaled the Provisional government. Leon Trotsky became chairman in 1917.
Order #1
An order that told the military units to only listen to the soviet and not the provisional goverment
Land, Peace, and Bread
What the Bolsheviks promised the Russian citizens. Land for the hungy pesants, suffering soldiers, and hungry workers
Kronstadt Rebellion
The rebellion that occured in 1921; there was mutiny in Russia's navy for food. This made Lenin realized that some changes had to be made, so he created the New Economic Policy.
Treaty of Brest-litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
Red Guards
The Bolshevik armed forces.
Council of people's commissars
...
Cheka
Secret police set up by Lenin-arrested "enemies of the revolution".
"whites"
...
"reds"
...
War communism
The political idea that applied the total war concept on a civil conflict
N.E.P
New Economic Policy: developed by Lenin/ Allowed peasants to sell excess crops & allowed small factories and businesses to be under private ownership. (Govt. still controlled major businesses & factories)
U.S.S.R
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Created by Lenin in 1922.
Kulak
wealthy peasant in the soviet union in the 1930s
Five year plan
Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after WWI. tried to improve heavy industry and improve farm output, but resulted in famine
Collectivization
system in which private farms were eliminated, instead, the government owned all the land while the peasants worked on it.
kolkhoz
a collective farm owned by the communist state
sovkhoz
A large farm in which peasants were simply employed and paid a straight salary
political purge
a political party or government who conduct is unacceptable
Great Purge
The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.
Totalitarian State
country where a single party controls the government and every aspect of the lives of the people
Nazi-Soviet pact
A secret agreement between the Germans and the Russians that said that they would not attack each other
Soviet Bloc
The Soviet Union and the Eastern European countries that installed Communist regimes after World War II and were dominated by the Soviet Union.
Iron Curtain
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
Karl Marx
This man came up with the idea of communism/dialectic socialism that said that two classes have always battled against each other to form another class that will battle against its antithesis until the synthesis is one equal class working with each other for each other
Alexander II
the son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881)
Alexander III
(1881) son of Alex II, increased use of secret police, censorship, exiles to Siberia, Russianunification to suppress non-Russians, pogroms
Nicholas II
the last czar of Russia who was forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Russian Revolution
Alexandra
wife of Nicholas II who was in charge of the government while Nicholas was on the front lines
Rasputin
Siberian peasant monk who was religious advisor in the court of Nicholas II
Peter Stolypin
(1862-1911) Russian minister under Nicholas II who encouraged the growth of private farmers and improved education for enterprising peasants.