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286 terms

Psych 2H Exam 2

STUDY
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Consciousness
our subjective experience of the world, our bodies, and our mental perspectives
Circadian rhythm
-cyclical changes that occur on a roughly 24hr basis in many biological processes (e.g., hormone release, body temperature)
Biological clock-
the SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) of the hypothalamus, triggers our sense of fatigue (via increasing melatonin)
Measuring sleep-
EEG, EOG, EMG
NonREM
-(no eye movements, less dreaming)
Stages
-(cycle through every 90 min.)
Stage 1
-light sleep, may contain hypnagogic imagery,
Stage 2-
sleep spindles, Kcomplexes, theta waves
Stages 3 and 4-
deeper sleep, delta waves
REM (paradoxical sleep)-
stage 5, eye movements, vivid dreaming
REM dreams
-More dreams occur during REM than nonREM
Insomnia -
difficulty falling and staying asleep
Restless leg syndrome-
urge to move one¬タルs legs or other body parts while attempting to sleep
Narcolepsy -
rapid and unexpected onset of sleep
Sleep apnea-
blockage of airway during sleep
Night Terrors -
during Stages 3 and 4, sudden waking episodes characterized by screaming, perspiring, and confusion followed by a return to a deep sleep
Sleepwalking -
usually occurs during nonREM sleep (not dreaming)
Freud¬タルs
wish fulfillment and dream protection theory- dreams transform our sexual and aggressive instincts into symbols that represent wish fulfillment and require interpretation¬タᄄ
Activationsynthesis theory-
dreams reflect brain activation originating in the pons, followed by efforts of the forebrain to weave these inputs into a story
Acetylcholine-
turns on REM sleep
The forebrain-
plays an important role in dreaming
Outofbody experience (OBE)-
sense of consciousness leaving one¬タルs body;May be related to ability to fantasize and to become extraordinarily absorbed in experiences
Neardeath experience (NDE)
OBE reported by people who have nearly died or thought they were going to die
NDElike experiences can be triggered -
by stimulating the temporal lobes, lack of oxygen to the brain, and psychedelic and anesthetic drugs
Dᅢᄅjᅢᅠ vu-
feeling of reliving an experience that is new
Meditation -
feeling of reliving an experience that is new
Hypnosis-
set of techniques that provides people with suggestions for alterations in their perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
Sociocognitive Theory-
approach to explaining hypnosis based on people¬タルs beliefs and expectations¬タᄄ
Dissociation model-
approach to explaining hypnosis based on separation of the parts of the personality responsible for planning from the part that controls memories (dissociation from consciousness)
Depressants-
decrease nervous system activity
Alcohol-
most widely used and abused drug
Tolerance -
reduction in the effect of a drug as a result of repeated use, requires greater quantities to achieve the same effect
Delirium tremens (DTs) -
disorientation, confusion, visual hallucinations, memory problems resulting from alcohol withdrawal, may be fatal without proper disorientation, confusion, visual hallucinations, memory problems resulting from alcohol withdrawal, may be fatal without prop
Alcohol hallucinosis -
auditory hallucinations, sometimes with paranoid beliefs, resulting from alcohol withdrawal
Stimulants -
Increase heart rate, respiration, blood pressure
Tobacco -nicotine;
activates acetylcholine receptors
Cocaine-
one of the most powerful reinforcers
Heroin-
similar action to morphine, but much more powerful
Marijuana-
activates cannabinoid receptors
LSD-
changes in sensation and perception, paranoia, panic
Mystical experiences-
sense of unity with world
Learning-c
hange in an organism¬タルs behavior or thought as a result of experience
Sensitization-
hange in an organism¬タルs behavior or thought as a result of experience
British associationists-
believed that we acquire virtually all of our knowledge by connecting one stimulus with another (e.g., mother¬タルs face and voice)¬タᄄ
Ivan Pavlov-
studied digestion in dogs, noted associative conditioning between neutral stimuli and meat powder (Pavlovian conditioning)
UCS unconditioned stimulus-
biologically significant stimulus that produces automatic response
UCR unconditioned response-
automatic response to a UCS that occurs without learning
CS conditioned stimulus -
initially neutral stimulus, becomes associated with the UCS initially neutral stimulus, becomes associated with the UCS through conditioning
CR conditioned response-
learned response
Aversive conditioning -
classical conditioning to an unpleasant UCS
Psychopathic personalities -
indifferent to signals of threat
Habituation
process by which we respond less strongly over time to repeated stimuli
.Acquisition
learning phase during which a CR is established
.Extinction
gradual decrease and elimination of the CR when the CS is presented repeatedly without the UCS
Spontaneous recovery
sudden reemergence of an extinguished CR after a delay
Renewal effect -
tendency of an extinguished CR to return when revisiting the original conditioning environment
Phobias
intense and irrational fears
Stimulus generalization
elicitation of a CR to stimuli that are highly similar to, but not identical to, the CS
Generalization gradient
the more similar to the original CS the new CS is, the stronger will be the CR
Stimulus discrimination
opposite of stimulus generalization; occurs when we exhibit a CR to certain CSs, but not others
Higher-order conditioning
process by which organisms develop classically conditioned responses to CSs associated with the original CS
Second-order conditioning
(e.g., thirst when hear "Coke" on a hot day)
Occasion setters:
setting in which CS occurs
Advertising
pairing positive USs with product CSs
Latent inhibition
when we've experienced a CS alone many times, it's difficult to classically condition it to another stimulus (e.g., highly known vs. novel brands)
Watson & Reyner (1920)
sought to disprove the Freudian view of phobia, reflecting deep-seated unconscious conflict
Fetishism
experiencing sexual attraction to nonliving things
Disgust reactions
in most cases, a product of classical conditioning because CSs associated with disgusting UCSs come to elicit disgust themselves
McConnell (1955)
gave light-shock (CS-UCS) pairings to planaria flatworms
Instrumental conditioning
acquiring behaviors as a result of the outcome or consequence of those behaviors
Positive reinforcement
pleasant stimulus is given to increase the probability of a response (e.g., cell phone for good grades)
Negative reinforcement
unpleasant stimulus is removed to increase the probability of a response (e.g., Aidan's mother's nagging stops when he picks up his room)
Punishment
unpleasant stimulus is given, or pleasant stimulus is taken away, to decrease the probability of a response (e.g., cell phone taken away for breaking curfew)
Discriminant stimulus
stimulus associated with the presence of reinforcement (e.g., whistle for dog, gets treat when approaches)
Partial reinforcement
behaviors that we reinforce only occasionally are slower to extinguish than those we reinforce continuously
Schedules of reinforcement
pattern of reinforcing a behavior
Fixed Ratio
after regular number of responses
Variable Ratio
after specific number of responses, on average
Fixed Interval
after specific amount of time
Variable Interval
after an average time interval
Shaping by successive reinforcement
reinforcing behaviors that aren't quite the target behavior but that are progressively closer versions of it
Chaining
linking a number of interrelated behaviors to form a longer series
Premack principle
a less frequently performed behavior can be increased by reinforcing it with a more frequent behavior
Superstitious behavior
behavior linked to reinforcement by sheer coincidence (e.g., lucky charm effect)
Token economies
mental hospital staff can reinforce patients who behave in a desired fashion using tokens, chips, points, or other secondary reinforcers
Secondary reinforcers
neutral objects that patients can later trade in for...
Primary reinforcers
items or outcomes that are naturally pleasurable, such as a favorite food or drink
ABA
a set of techniques, pioneered by Ivar Lovaas at UCLA, and based on operant conditioning principles, that relies on the careful measuremenf behavior before and after implementing interventions
Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) theorists
focus on how the organism interprets the stimulus before generating a response
Latent learning
arning that isn't directly observable; we learn many things without showing them
What Emphasizes the difference between competence (what we know) and performance (showing what we know)
latent learning
Observational learning
earning by watching others (models), without instruction or reinforcement
Insight learning
when subjects suddenly "get" the solution to a problem, and from there on get it right almost every time
Conditioned taste aversion
classical conditioning can lead us to develop avoidance reactions to the taste of food
Preparedness
regarding phobias suggests that we're evolutionarily predisposed to fear certain stimuli more than others
instinctive drift
Tendency for animals to return to innate behaviors following repeated reinforcement:
Sleep-assisted learning
listening to audio tapes while you sleep
Discovery learning
giving students experimental materials and asking them to figure out scientific principles on their own
Memory is reconstructive
we extract the gist to make things easier to remember (but this may contribute to memory errors)
Sensory memory
very brief storage of perceptual information; each sense has its own form
Iconic
(visual)
echoic
(auditory)
Short-term memory
limited duration (< 20 seconds) and capacity (the magic number = 7 ± 2 pieces of information)
proactive inhibition
old info interferes with acquisition of new info
Chunking
organizing info into meaningful groupings to extend the span of STM beyond 7 ± 2
Rehearsal
repeating info to extend the duration of STM
Maintenance rehearsal
repeating stimuli in the original form (e.g., repeating phone number long enough to dial it)
Elaborative rehearsal
linking stimuli in a meaningful way
Levels-of-processing model
the more deeply we transform info, the better we remember it
Long-term memory
permanent store of information
LTM
capacity is very large;may endure for decades
Primacy effect
tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list better than those later in the list
Recency effect -
endency to remember words at the end of a list better than those earlier in the list
von Restorff effect
tendency to remember distinctive stimuli
Explicit (or declarative) memory
accessible to conscious awareness, can be stated "declaratively"
Implicit memory
not deliberately remembered ("automatic"), doesn't require conscious effort, many different forms
Procedural memory
motor skills and habits, "know how" memory
Priming
facilitated recognition of a stimulus after seeing it, or a similar stimulus, previously
Classical conditioning
associative conditioning between neutral and innately meaningful stimuli
Habituation
decrease in attention to familiar stimuli over time
Encoding
getting information into memory
Storage
keeping information in memory
Retrieval
reactivation or reconstruction of information from memory
Mnemonics
learning aid that enhances recall;Pegword method (uses rhyming)
Schemas
organized knowledge structure, or mental model, that provides a frame of reference for interpreting new situations
Recall
generating previously remembered information
Recognition -
selecting previously remembered information from an array of options
Relearning-
"savings"; how much more quickly we reacquire something learned before
Encoding specificity
we're more likely to remember something when the conditions present at encoding are similar to those at retrieval
Context-dependent learning
external context
State-dependent learning
internal state
Long-term potentiation (LTP)
strengthening of connections among neurons due to simultaneous stimulation (firing together, wiring together)
Retrograde amnesia
loss of past memories before onset of amnesia
Anterograde amnesia
inability to form new memories since onset of amnesia
H.M.
severe epilepsy, medial part of temporal lobes removed, including hippocampi
Clive Wearing
hippocampi destroyed by virus
amygdala
is responsible for the storage of emotional components of memory, especially fear memories
Dementia
overall cognitive decline, including severe memory and language los
Infantile Amnesia
We are unable to recall personal experiences that took place before about 3 to 5 years of age
Flashbulb memories
very vivid, able to be recalled in detail
Source monitoring
ability to identify the origins of a memory
Cryptomnesia
failure to recognize that one's idea actually originated with someone else
Misinformation Effect
creation of fictitious memories by providing misleading information afterward
Schacter's Seven Sins of Memory
Suggestibility,Misattribution,Bias,Transience,Persistence,Blocking,Absentmindedness
Research on age-regression and past life regression therapeutic techniques suggests that
they say more about the patient's beliefs than about any true healing properties.
What relatively rare sleep disorder involves people acting out the movements and events of their dreams?
REM behavior disorder
During public performances, hypnotists attempt to show that hypnosis is "real" by demonstrating its special powers. However, what most audience members fail to realize is that many of the phenomena can occur without receiving hypnotic suggestion. In these presentations, the hypnotists are most like
magicians and illusionists.
Which of the following concepts most strongly challenges the conventional belief that one is either entirely awake and consciously aware or asleep and not consciously aware?
Lucid dreaming
What theory of hypnosis posits that individuals who are highly suggestible are simply responding to cues from the hypnotist rather than truly entering an altered state of consciousness?
Sociocognitive theory
We spend the greatest amount of time engaged in what altered state of consciousness?
sleeping
Which altered state of consciousness might be due to the combination of distraction and nonconscious information processing?
Déjà vu experiences
What is the most frequently used illegal drug in the United States?
marijuana
The use of hypnosis seems to be an effective treatment option for all of the following types of conditions EXCEPT
serious psychological problems.
Nathan was a psychologist in the 1930s. Which of the following would best represent his understanding of what happened inside the brain during sleep?
Nothing interesting happens as humans sleep through the night.
What general category of drug is used in the controlling of pain?
Opiate narcotics
Not everyone can claim to have had an out-of-body experience. What is one important factor that is associated with a self-reported out-of-body experience?
Loss of body awareness
Which of the following is a suggested treatment for insomnia?
Try to sleep only when tired.
The experiencing of a high is most strongly enhanced by learning and/or expectancies with
marijuana
Sleep research has continually shown that children spend more of their night getting deep sleep than do adults. This deep sleep corresponds to what stage(s) of sleep?
Stages 3 and 4
Audience members at hypnosis demonstrations are often amazed by seemingly extraordinary events. They seem to have failed to realize that the persons who are on stage demonstrating the power of hypnosis were selected for their
suggestibility.
Which class of psychoactive drugs works by increasing activity within the nervous system?
stimulants
Raja is conducting research on altered states of consciousness. He notices that during his initial interviews fewer persons who reported negative near-death experiences are willing to come back and complete his battery of surveys than are persons who reported positive near-death experiences. This fact leads him to question whether the information collected by previous researchers truly explains what happens during near-death experiences or simply is biased toward those with positive experiences. This example demonstrates what principle of critical thinking?
Ruling out rival hypotheses
Joaquin frequently experiences difficulty staying asleep through the night. He has no problem falling asleep initially, but recently he has experienced problems with waking up and then returning to sleep after receiving a new promotion at work approximately three weeks ago. Joaquin is most likely to be diagnosed as suffering from
insomnia
One's mental perspective and personal understanding of the world are what psychologists refer to as
consciousness.
Freud's theoretical explanation about why we dream has received ________ empirical research support.
little
As we sleep during the night, we spend the majority of our time in ________ sleep.
stage 2
One key criticism of claims of out-of-body experiences is that there are often multiple explanations for the phenomena. This is an example of what key principle in critical thinking?
Ruling out rival hypotheses
What theory of hypnosis posits that individuals who are highly suggestible are simply responding to cues from the hypnotist rather than truly entering an altered state of consciousness?
Sociocognitive theory
Which of the following statements on REM sleep and dreaming is TRUE?
Women's dream content contains more emotion than do men's.
A psychologist or a psychiatrist is likely to diagnose one's difficulty in attaining adequate nightly sleep as a psychological disorder
if it interferes with daily activities such as work and negatively impacts a person's health.
What relatively rare sleep disorder involves people acting out the movements and events of their dreams?
REM behavior disorder
Eric had a dream where he reported feeling strapped down and unable to move or survey much of his surroundings. When discussing this with his therapist he wonders whether it was an alien abduction. The therapist suggests that these feelings more correctly reflect
sleep paralysis.
Societal commentators have long lamented the misery and difficulties associated with the misuse of
alcohol
Getting an adequate amount of sleep, which also means that one is likely to dream, may be important in the process of
integrating and organizing information within memory.
Curtis has been getting only four hours of sleep a night during final exams because he didn't prepare like he should have during the semester. Upon returning home for the summer, he experiences intense dreams for three nights as he gets his more typical seven and a half hours of nightly sleep. Curtis is most likely experiencing
REM rebound
Mr. Colbert is meeting with his doctor to discuss treatments for his recently diagnosed narcolepsy. Which of the following is likely to be a part of his treatment regimen?
Taking short naps
Which of the following disorders is more common among children than among adults?
night terrors
Having important life events replay quickly and being in a tunnel walking toward a bright light are common themes in
near-death experiences.
Contrary to popular public opinion regarding hypnosis, people can
resist and oppose hypnotic suggestions at will.
The most powerful natural stimulant is
cocaine.
What theoretical explanation of dreams explains dreaming as resulting from normal neural transmission and interpretation?
Activation-synthesis theory
Tobacco is often used to
reduce feelings of anxiety.
Interest in understanding dreams can be traced back
many centuries
Enrico claims that déjà vu is evidence of a memory from one's past life. This claim violates which principle of critical thinking?
Falsifiability
The perspective that one's dreams contain more information than would be expected at first glance is most consistent with
dream protection theory
Nathan was a psychologist in the 1930s. Which of the following would best represent his understanding of what happened inside the brain during sleep?
Nothing interesting happens as humans sleep through the night.
What does the research evidence suggest about the relationship between hypnosis and sleep states?
When people are hypnotized, it is a state that is entirely different from sleep.
When we feel drowsy late at night it is the result of neurons that are controlled within our
hypothalamus
What theoretical explanation of dreams explains dreaming as resulting from normal neural transmission and interpretation?
Activation-synthesis theory
Even though sleep research suggests that most college students require approximately ________ hours of sleep nightly, they often get ________ hours.
9,6
Carla reported observing herself help a pedestrian who had been hit by a taxicab driver from atop a building awning 15-feet off the ground. This is an example of what altered state of consciousness?
Out-of-body experience
What theory of hypnosis would be best able to account for research findings that suggest that an individual can be consciously telling a researcher that placing one's hand in ice-cold water isn't painful while unconsciously tapping a button that indicates they are experiencing pain?
Dissociation theory
Research has highlighted the importance of what region of the brain in the process of dreaming?
Forebrain
Sleepwalking occurs most often during ________ sleep.
stage 4
Geoff is reading the science section of the newspaper. He should be most skeptical of which of the following headlines?
Feeling bad? Angry? Dream your problems away
Marion is overweight, and has been since he was a teenager, and has been diagnosed with sleep apnea. What is the FIRST recommendation that Marion's doctor is likely to make to help treat the sleep apnea?
Change his eating or exercise habits to promote weight loss
During what stage of sleep are we most likely to experience a vivid dream?
Paradoxical/REM sleep
Dwayne and his nine-year-old son are sitting at the breakfast table and talking about various things. The son mentions a dream he had about school. Dwayne mentions a bizarre dream he had the previous night. These differences in the content of dreams is best explained by
neurocognitive theory.
Which of the following concepts most strongly challenges the conventional belief that one is either entirely awake and consciously aware or asleep and not consciously aware?
Lucid dreaming
Which altered state of consciousness might be due to the combination of distraction and nonconscious information processing?
Déjà vu experiences
Jemele has decided to remain awake two hours more than normal so that she can study for her British Literature exam. She also plans to wake one and a half hours earlier than normal to resume studying. This change in her sleep pattern will have the biggest effect on the amount of ________ sleep she gets.
REM
Which type of drug could also be labeled "Hallucinogenics"?
Psychedelics
Albert is extremely obese and his family often complains of his snoring. During the night as he sleeps, he often stops breathing for a few seconds. As a result, his sleep is less restful because he awakens gasping for air. Albert clearly suffers from
sleep apnea.
Behaviors such as aggression, flirting, and crying or extreme sadness while using alcohol result primarily from
an individual's expectancies about the effects of alcohol.
Mr. Colbert is meeting with his doctor to discuss treatments for his recently diagnosed narcolepsy. Which of the following is likely to be a part of his treatment regimen?
Taking short naps
The perspective that one's dreams contain more information than would be expected at first glance is most consistent with
dream protection theory.
________ is defined as any practice that intentionally alters our attention and awareness.
Meditation
Ed often experiences an intense urge to sleep and has often fallen asleep for a few minutes while in business meetings, while driving, and talking on the phone. He is most likely to diagnosed as suffering from
narcolepsy.
Rather than accepting claims of near-death experiences (NDEs) as an example of an altered state of consciousness, Dr. Marvin Monroe asserts that many of the symptoms of NDEs are consistent with the physiological changes associated with a dying brain. His view is most similar to what general principle of critical thinking?
Parsimony
Even though many assume that alcohol is primarily a ________ , it is, in fact, primarily a(n) ________.
stimulant; depressant
Enrico claims that déjà vu is evidence of a memory from one's past life. This claim violates which principle of critical thinking?
Falsifiability
One key criticism of claims of out-of-body experiences is that there are often multiple explanations for the phenomena. This is an example of what key principle in critical thinking?
Ruling out rival hypotheses
Which theorist believed that most of learning occurred by trial and error?
Thorndike
Which of the following is true concerning the treatment of phobias using classical conditioning?
Persons fearful of flying will need to associate flying with something pleasurable to reduce this fear.
Most preschool teachers are likely to favor the use of ________ over ________ in shaping students' behaviors.
positive reinforcement; punishment
Regarding the two-processes of operant and classical conditioning, which is true?
Phobias are likely caused by classical conditioning maintained by operant conditioning.
Regarding operant conditioning, which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
A student is exempted from a weekly quiz for exemplary homework.
One can be conditioned to become sexually aroused at the sight of a triangle if the triangle is presented shortly ________ an appropriate ________.
before; UCS
If parents handle discipline by employing mainly a punishment approach, which of the following can be assumed?
Parents are interested in eliminating bad behaviors by presenting negative consequences after bad behavior.
It is most appropriate to use operant conditioning when
teaching a child to read.
Thorndike's Law of Effect is most closely associated with which operant conditioning principle?
Positive reinforcement
Which of the following statements concerning sleep learning is true?
Sleep learning tapes work because we are likely not asleep when we listen to the tapes.
Which of the following is true concerning intermittent schedules of reinforcement?
Ratio schedules yield higher rates of responding as compared to interval schedules.
Which two theorists laid the groundwork for the theory of operant conditioning?
Thorndike and Skinner
Young Albert is initially not afraid of white rats but if white rats and loud noises are presented in sequence, Albert may learn to fear rats. In this example white rates would be the
CS
In Pavlov's "salivating dogs" studies, the UCS was
food
Julie is paid based on commission so her salary reflects a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
variable ratio
Which of the following describes the situation of chaining?
Teaching a child to play tennis by providing reinforcement in steps for learning to serve, volley, and use the forehand and backhand until the child can play the complete game of tennis.
Julie is expected to cut the lawn weekly. Her parents only give her money once in a while after she cuts the lawn. Julie is being conditioned using a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
intermittent
Which of the following will decrease the likelihood of behavior reoccurring?
punishment
Shelly has developed a fear of bridges due to the recent, graphic news coverage of people falling from a collapsed bridge. Which of the following is the CS?
bridges
The conditioned stimulus is defined as
the previously neutral stimulus that has acquired the capacity to produce the conditioned response.
Little Albert learns to fear white rats but he does not fear white rabbits. This behavior illustrates
stimulus discrimination.
Regarding operant conditioning, reinforcement should be given ________ the desired response to be most effective in shaping behavior
immediately after
________ was the first person to describe learning as acquired through classical conditioning while studying the digestive process of dogs.
Ivan Pavlov
Studies of latent learning emphasizes the importance of ________ on learning.
cognitive processes
Punishment can be defined as
any consequence presented after behavior that decreases the likelihood of the behavior reoccurring.
Which of the following statements is representative of general research on spanking and aggression?
Increased spanking is associated with higher levels of aggression in children from countries where spanking is rare.
The case of learning in the absence of reinforcement is demonstrated by studies of
latent learning.
Which of the following is reflective of Seligman's research on conditioned taste aversion?
Contrary to most classically conditioned reactions, only one pairing of the CS with the UCS is needed to produce a taste aversion.
ne can be conditioned to become sexually aroused at the sight of a triangle if the triangle is presented shortly ________ an appropriate ________.
before; UCS
While on a cruise ship, Kevin became sick after eating a seafood dinner. His food poisoning coupled with sea sickness led to a terrible vacation and consequently Kevin shivers at the mere sight of cruise ships. Kevin's behavior illustrates the process of
generalization.
Which of the following describes the main difference between observational learning and operant conditioning?
Observational learning uses punishment and reinforcement of models to condition the behaviors of observers.
Which of the following is true concerning operant conditioning principles?
Fading involves gradually decreasing reinforcement for wanted behaviors.
Nicky tends to bite his nails when he becomes nervous because it calms him down. Nicky's behavior is an example of
negative reinforcement.
Which of the following is true of token economies?
Token economies have proven to be effective in conditioning behavior over long periods of time.
Which of the following theories provides the safest strategies for teaching a child to cross a busy street?
Observational learning
Julie is paid based on commission so her salary reflects a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
variable ratio
Which of the following is an example of discovery learning?
A student working independently on a science project
According to ________ theory, behavior is said to be influenced by its consequences.
operant conditioning
Providing a child a homework pass if she completes 5 word problems during class represents both ________ reinforcement and a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
negative; fixed ratio
Which of the following is most representative of research concerning learning styles?
Most students have a specific learning style and teachers should tailor instruction to the individual student based on their learning style.
Which of the following is true concerning Accelerated Learning techniques?
Research concerning suggestive learning techniques does not provide strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of these techniques.
It is most appropriate to use operant conditioning when
teaching a child to read.
Which of the following is reflective of Seligman's research on conditioned taste aversion?
Contrary to most classically conditioned reactions, only one pairing of the CS with the UCS is needed to produce a taste aversion.
John sees others being praised for using good penmanship and now he attempts to use good penmanship. This behavior is reflective of ________ learning.
observational
Which of the following terms represents the process of moving from a continuous reinforcement schedule to partial reinforcement schedule?
fading
Which of the following is true regarding schedules of reinforcement?
Partial reinforcement of target behavior leads to greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
Regarding the two-processes of operant and classical conditioning, which is true?
Phobias are likely caused by classical conditioning maintained by operant conditioning.
Which of the following reinforcers would likely work best in motivating high school students to stay on task during classtime.
Homework passes
Which of the following is an example of the Premack principle?
Allowing a child to have ice cream only if he/she eats his/her vegetables
Which of the following statements is representative of general research on spanking and aggression?
Increased spanking is associated with higher levels of aggression in children from countries where spanking is rare.
Most employees work eight hours per day from Monday through Friday. Most employees are paid on a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
fixed interval
Which of the intermittent schedules produces the highest rates of responding?
variable ratio
Providing a child a homework pass if she completes 5 word problems during class represents both ________ reinforcement and a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
negative; fixed ratio
Wearing shorts on a hot summer day is a behavior that is established by way of
negative reinforcement
Which of the following is true concerning Bandura's classic "bobo doll" study?
Exposure to aggressive models led to increased aggression in nursery school childre
oken economies are reinforcement-based strategies that use points, tokens, and chips as ________ reinforcers.
secondary
In Pavlov's "salivating dogs" studies, the salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was the
conditioned response.
In Pavlov's "salivating dogs" studies, the UCR was
salivation
Which of the findings have been supported by research concerning classical conditioning and advertising appeals for well-known products?
It is easier to classically condition novel brands versus well-known brands.
Researchers studying the effects of television violence on aggression have found that
media violence may cause aggression in children but this is difficult to substantiate because correlational studies used to investigate this link are low in internal validity.
Ken's mouth waters every time he hears the ice cream truck's familiar song in the distance. One day a slightly different song is heard in the distance and Ken's mouth waters. Ken's behavior illustrates
stimulus generalization.
Which of the following is true concerning Tolman and Honzlik's classic study of latent learning?
Rats were able to learn without receiving reinforcement.
The situation of a student's final grade improving one letter grade for every three books read represents which level of reinforcement?
Fixed ratio
Which type of neuron becomes active when we engage in observational learning?
Mirror neuron
Which of the following is true concerning Accelerated Learning techniques?
Research concerning suggestive learning techniques does not provide strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of these techniques.
Which of the following is reflective of Seligman's research on conditioned taste aversion?
Contrary to most classically conditioned reactions, only one pairing of the CS with the UCS is needed to produce a taste aversion.
Which of the following is an example of positive reinforcement?
Giving a child candy for completing their homework
Naturalistic Observation
watching behavior in real-world settings
Case study designs
Helpful in providing existence proofs, but can be misleading and anecdotal
Correlational designs
merely shows things are related or associated
Experimental Group -
receives the manipulation
Control Group
does not receive the manipulation
Independent Variable
experimenter manipulates
Dependent Variable
experimenter measures to see whether manipulation had an effect