Describe DNA structure
A double stranded, helical molecule. Components of DNA are: 1) Deoxyribase(5)
3) Bases (A,T,C,G)
Describe DNA replication
the 2 strands unwind and create an "initiation site" which more DNA is created.
Describe the direction of elongation
Leading: Continuous strand (towards)
Lagging: Discontinuous strands (away)
continuous DNA assembly
the original 5' to 3' ("leading strand") strand is released from its 3' end so the complement is generated in its 5' to 3' direction, continuously. There is no need to pause.
Where the genetic code carried by mRNA is decoded to produce the specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.
The process of duplicating or producing an exact copy of a polynucleotide strand such as DNA.
rRNA function and location
A nucleic acid found in all living cells. Plays a role in transferring information from dNA to the protein-forming system of the cell. More specifically, rRNA sits in the Ribosome, decoding the mRNA into various amino acids and assisting in translation.
mRNA function and location
produced and processed in the Nucleus they are transported to the cytoplasmic ribosomes, and is the instructions for the creation of a protein.
tRNA function and location
to transfer specific amino acids to growing polypeptide chain during the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during what you call translation. location is outside the nucleus and associated with the ribosome.
define promoter region
dNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a dNA-dependent rNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription
define RNA polymerase
an enzyme that is responsible for making rna from a dna template. In all cells RNAP is needed for constructing rna chains from a dna template, a process termed transcription.
The three codons, UAA known as ochre, UAG as amber and UGA as opal, that do not code for an amino acid but act as signals for the termination of protein synthesis.
P vs. A binding sites on ribosome
P & A are a region of a messenger RNA molecule that binds the ribosome to initiate translation. A is first and makes sure the part fits and P is the second and it makes the chain
The protein-coding region in the DNA. The nucleic acid sequence in the DNA, or RNA transcript following genetic splicing.
Non-coding, intervening sequences of dna that are transcribed, but are removed from within the primary gene transcript and rapidly degraded during maturation of messenger rna
discontinuous DNA assembly
as the 3' to 5' strand unwinds its 5' end is free so, the complement would be generated 3' to 5'. Except that can't happen, so as the DNA unwinds, replication of this strand is paused, until enough is free to start replication. Because of the nature of DNA, this is done in fragments (okazaki fragments)
Preliminary vs. Secondary screening techniques
Preliminary screenings are antibodies ;
Secondary screening is molecular probes
Happens in stage ONE of GENETIC EXPERIMENT (It becomes sticky by result from the cut, can be used to pair up with other DNA fragments.)
Circular DNA or RNA molecules carrying only a few genes
1) fertility (bacterial)
2) Resistance (Antibodies)
The production of multiple copies of a sequence of DNA. Repeated copying of a piece of DNA.
the transfer of bacterial genes by a bacteriophage (a virus which can inject viral DNA into a bacterium.)
transfer of plasmids (circular DNA, or RNA, molecules carrying only a few genes); it is replicated independently of the "main" chromosome;
there are two types: 1) Fertility "F" Plasmid
2) Resistance "R" Plasmid
Polymerase Chain Reaction - Uses several steps to split DNA into 2 strands, portions of which are then copied and reassembled into millions of double-stranded forms that can be separated from each other by gel electrophoresis. Heat to denature, Prime to copy.