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Describe DNA structure

A double stranded, helical molecule. Components of DNA are: 1) Deoxyribase(5)
2) Phosphate
3) Bases (A,T,C,G)

Describe DNA replication

the 2 strands unwind and create an "initiation site" which more DNA is created.

Describe replication forks

Site where helix is growing and unzipped.

Describe the direction of elongation

Leading: Continuous strand (towards)
Lagging: Discontinuous strands (away)

continuous DNA assembly

the original 5' to 3' ("leading strand") strand is released from its 3' end so the complement is generated in its 5' to 3' direction, continuously. There is no need to pause.

DNA polymerase vs. ligase

Polymerase binding ; Ligase lagging only

define template

DNA which is copied

define triplet

every 3 bases (start AUG)

define genetic code

basic language 22AA and 64 codons

define mutation

a change in your DNA


DNA has deoxyribose and A, T, C, G. RNA has ribose sugar and A, U, C, G.

Define transcription

DNA sequence is copied (or transcribed) into an mRNA.

Define translation

Where the genetic code carried by mRNA is decoded to produce the specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.

Define replication

The process of duplicating or producing an exact copy of a polynucleotide strand such as DNA.

rRNA function and location

A nucleic acid found in all living cells. Plays a role in transferring information from dNA to the protein-forming system of the cell. More specifically, rRNA sits in the Ribosome, decoding the mRNA into various amino acids and assisting in translation.

mRNA function and location

produced and processed in the Nucleus they are transported to the cytoplasmic ribosomes, and is the instructions for the creation of a protein.

tRNA function and location

to transfer specific amino acids to growing polypeptide chain during the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during what you call translation. location is outside the nucleus and associated with the ribosome.

define promoter region

dNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a dNA-dependent rNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription

define RNA polymerase

an enzyme that is responsible for making rna from a dna template. In all cells RNAP is needed for constructing rna chains from a dna template, a process termed transcription.

start codon

The codon 5' AUG in mRNA, at which polypeptide synthesis is started.

stop codon

The three codons, UAA known as ochre, UAG as amber and UGA as opal, that do not code for an amino acid but act as signals for the termination of protein synthesis.

P vs. A binding sites on ribosome

P & A are a region of a messenger RNA molecule that binds the ribosome to initiate translation. A is first and makes sure the part fits and P is the second and it makes the chain


The protein-coding region in the DNA. The nucleic acid sequence in the DNA, or RNA transcript following genetic splicing.


Non-coding, intervening sequences of dna that are transcribed, but are removed from within the primary gene transcript and rapidly degraded during maturation of messenger rna

discontinuous DNA assembly

as the 3' to 5' strand unwinds its 5' end is free so, the complement would be generated 3' to 5'. Except that can't happen, so as the DNA unwinds, replication of this strand is paused, until enough is free to start replication. Because of the nature of DNA, this is done in fragments (okazaki fragments)

stages of translation in order

initiation, chain elongation, and chain termination

Genetic experiment stages

DNA cleavage, production, cloning, ad screening

Preliminary vs. Secondary screening techniques

Preliminary screenings are antibodies ;
Secondary screening is molecular probes

Southern Blot Test

DNA is put into fragments and spread apart by gel electrophoresis.

Sticky Ends

Happens in stage ONE of GENETIC EXPERIMENT (It becomes sticky by result from the cut, can be used to pair up with other DNA fragments.)


Circular DNA or RNA molecules carrying only a few genes
1) fertility (bacterial)
2) Resistance (Antibodies)

restriction enzymes

DNA cut apart foreign DNA molecules "scissors"

DNA ligase

DNA "tape" can be used to splice together cut plasmids ad chromo fragments

DNA library

Total DNA constitutes a library. Bactria and yeasts are hosts.

DNA amplification

The production of multiple copies of a sequence of DNA. Repeated copying of a piece of DNA.


Copied DNA


Restriction fragment length polymorphisms , they identify unique genetic fingerprints


the taking up of DNA from the fluid surrounding a cell.


the transfer of bacterial genes by a bacteriophage (a virus which can inject viral DNA into a bacterium.)


transfer of plasmids (circular DNA, or RNA, molecules carrying only a few genes); it is replicated independently of the "main" chromosome;
there are two types: 1) Fertility "F" Plasmid
2) Resistance "R" Plasmid


Polymerase Chain Reaction - Uses several steps to split DNA into 2 strands, portions of which are then copied and reassembled into millions of double-stranded forms that can be separated from each other by gel electrophoresis. Heat to denature, Prime to copy.

Direction of movement (gel electrophoresis)

electrical charge

transcription starts at

starts at promoter

RFLP's are based

on where different enzymes cut DNA

Ribosomal =


3 stop codons, they

do not specify what amino acids they stop

Lagging =


A gene is a piece if DNA, DNA to proteins. =

encoded into proteins

Transcription - 3 different types of RNA molecules: r,m &t

Transcription - RNA polymerase

Portion which DNA is translated: =


RNA and DNA is complementary =

A to T/U and G to C

2 antiparell chains held together by

hydrogen bonds

Reserchers prefer _____ when working with human genes


DNA copy enzymes to mRNA reverse transcriptase

is RNA to DNA

Different kinds of RNA transcribed in

in Nucleus (Nucleolus)







Conjunction 2: F+ bacteria transfer genes by

by Pili

Original DA strand to build a new strand

Semi-conservative method

mRNA leaves nucleolus and becomes a

a Ribosome

A to P to E is the way

the order is loaded onto the ribosomes.

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