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A Working Vocabulary of Fundamental Terms
Terms in this set (98)
any sentence with an active verb.
attack on the person rather than the issues at hand.
repetition of phonetic sounds.
reference that recalls another work, time in history, or famous person.
repetition where the last word of the clause begins the next clause.
relational comparison of or similarity between two objects or ideas.
deliberate repetition of a word or phrase
reversal of the natural order of words in a sentence or line of poetry.
observation or claim that is in opposition to your claim or authors claim.
breif statement of an opinion or elemental truth.
Prayer-like, this is a direct address to someone who is not present or to some other power.
modifies the noun next to it.
words or language that is outdaded or not used anymore.
Argument from Ignorance
An argument stating that something is true because it has never been proven false.
deliberate omission of conjunctions from a series of related independent clauses.
"everyone's doing it" fallacy
Begging the Question
the speaker states a claim that includes a word or phrase that needs to be defined before the argument can proceed.
Cause and Effect
causality fallacy or false cause. (superstitions)
ABBA syntactical structure.
sentence structure that is a combination of a dependent and independent clause.
sentence structure made up of two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction.
combination of compound and complex sentence.
associations or moods that accompany a word.
basic statement or an assertion.
form of logical argumentation that uses claims or premises.
dictionary meaning of a word.
contains a noun and a verb but is set up with a subordinate conjunction, which makes the clause an incomplete thought.
A regional speech pattern (colloquial language)
particular words an author uses in any essay.
a posssible answer that seems to be correct.
Three dots that indicate words have been left out of a quotation; they also can be used to create suspense.
repeats the opening word or phrase at the end of the sentence.
ending of a series with the same word or words.
an appeal to credibility.
study of the origin of words and their historical uses.
safer or nicer word for something others find inappropriate or unappealing.
conveys excitement or force.
A failure of logical reasoning.
An argument using an inappropriate metaphor.
Also known as an either/or fallacy. The suggestionmade in the argument that the problem or debate only has two soultions.
A verb ending in "ing" that serves as a noun.
An exaggeration that bolsters an argument.
Any time one of the five senses is evoked by what you have read.
A clause that can stand alone as a sentence.
Form of logical argumentation that requires the use of examples.
The word "to" plus a verb, usually functioning as a noun and often as a predicate in a sentence.
The use of words to express something other than and often the opposit of the literal meaning.
pattern of speech associated with a particular group of people.
Making one idea more dramatic by placing it next to its opposite.
An appeal to reason.
independent clause followed by debris, usually dependent clauses.
wonderful form of word play in which one word is mistakenly substituted for another that sounds similar.
figure of speech in which what is unknown is compared to something that is known in order to better guage its importance.
minor figure of speech in which the name of one thing is substituted for another with which it is closely associated.
argument by misdirection and is logically irrelevant.
noun toward which thought, feeling, or action is directed.
figure of speech imitates a sound.
two words put together to create a sense of opposition.
creates a metal discontinuity, the reader has to pause and seek clarity.
Parrallel Syntax (Parallelism)
pattern of language that creates a rhythm of repetition.
Phrases, sentences, and words inside parentheses.
verbal used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed.
opposite of active voice, verb contains was.
appeal to emotion.
several dependent clauses that precede the independent clause.
human attributes to non-human things.
grouping of words that define or clarify
Point Of View
perspective from which the writer chooses to present his story.
Poisoning The Well
Person or Character that is introduced with language as not being reliable.
Consecutive coordinating conjunctions
verb that conveys the meaning or carries the action of the sentence.
adjective that follows a linking verb and modifies the subject of the sentence.
noun or pronoun that uses a linking verb to unite, describe, or rename the noun in the subject of the sentence.
paragraph or language that defines the essay task; refers to any and all parts of an essay question.
Play on words.
argument that distracts readers by raising irrelevant issues.
form of rhetorical stress that calls the reader's attention to a particular word for emphasis of meaning.
question whose answer is assumed.
author significantly alters his or her diction, syntax or both.
unknown is compared to something that is known using the word "like", "as", or "than".
An independent clause.
fallacy that argues that one thing inevitable leads to another.
question you are asked to comple with the given possible answers.
person in an argument defines his opponent's position when the opponent is not present and defines it a manner that is easy to attack.
noun that is the basic focus of the sentence.
conjunction that makes an independent clause into a dependent clause.(because, since, which, if when,although)
three-part argument construction in which two premises lead to a truth.
part is used for the whole.
rules of grammar that define the formation of sentences.
to unite or synthesize a variety of sources to achieve a common end.
basic message or meaning
writers statement of purpose.
sentence with three equally distinct and equally long parts seperated by commas (I came, I saw, I conquered)
exaggeration by showing restraint, oppposite of hyperbole.
two or more elements in a sentence are tied together by the same verb or noun.
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