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20 terms

AP Psychology (Barron's)-Chapter 2

STUDY
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applied research
research undertaken to solve a specific problem
basic research
exploers questions that are of interest to psychologists but are not intended to have immediate, real-world application
validity
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results
representative sample
a sample that accurately reflects the characteristics of the population as a whole
stratified sampling
a process or selecting individuals from a population in such a way that the subgroups in the population are represented in the sample, the population is divided into subpopulations and random samples are taken of each stratum.
experiment-laboratory
experiment in the lab
confounding variables-participant and situation-relevant
any difference between the experimental and control conditions, except for the independent variable, that might affect the dependent variable
Hawthorne effect
a change in a subject's behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied
Response rate
number of people who complete your survey
Descriptive statistics
statistical procedures used to describe characteristics and responses of groups of subjects
Frequency distribution
an arrangement of data that indicates how often a particular score or observation occurs
z score
in a normal distribution it tells you how far a number is above or below mean in terms of standard deviations.
line of best fit/regression line
a smooth line that reflects the general pattern in a graph
inferential statistics
numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance
p value
The probability level which forms basis for deciding if results are statistically significant (not due to chance).
sampling error
the extent to which the samples differ
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
a committee at each institution where research is conducted to review every experiment for ethics and methodology
Coercion
voluntary
Anonymity
Confidentiality