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Lecture # 27

type E climates (polar climates)

-locations with an average temperature of the warmest month < 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit)
-in terms of precipitation amount these areas would be classified as desert
-little solar radiation so very low temperatures, BUT large temperature variation

types of E climates

ET: Tundra
EF: Ice Cap

ET: Tundra (location)

north coast of Alaska, Canada, north Canadian islands, some interior areas; coastal Greenland

ET: Tundra (characteristics)

-average temperature of warmest month > 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit) < 10 degrees Celsius
-severe winters and cool summers

ET: Tundra (mechanisms)

-high latitudes = low solar radiation input
-dominance by stable air and Polar High pressure cell
-cold air cannot hold much moisture = low precipitation

ET: Tundra (vegetation)

-grasses, sedges, mosses, and lichens
-area of permafrost


the permanently frozen subsoil below about .5-1 meter depth

EF: Ice Cap (location)

ice caps of Greenland and Antarctica

EF: Ice Cap (characteristics)

-average temperature of warmest month < 0 degrees Celsius (no months when the average is above freezing)
-strong downslope or katabatic winds in many areas

EF: Ice Caps (mechanisms)

-high latitudes = low solar radiation input
-permanent ice = low temperatures = permanent ice = low temperatures, etc. (negative feedback situation)
-high albedo rates, up to 80%

EF: Ice Caps (vegetation)

-NONE, permanent ice and snow

highland climates

areas of high elevation with generally cooler and wetter conditions than surrounding lowlands

highland climates (location)

mountainous areas: Rockies, Sierra Nevada, Cascades, the Andes, Himalayas, and Tibetan Plateau

highland climates (characteristics)

-diverse complex of microclimates

example of microclimate characteristic of highland climate

north facing slope vs. south facing slope, windward vs. leeward

highland climates (mechanisms)

high elevation with divers, rugged topography

highland climates (vegetation)

variable; zonation with elevation

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