17 terms

Type E Climates

Lecture # 27
type E climates (polar climates)
-locations with an average temperature of the warmest month < 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit)
-in terms of precipitation amount these areas would be classified as desert
-little solar radiation so very low temperatures, BUT large temperature variation
types of E climates
ET: Tundra
EF: Ice Cap
ET: Tundra (location)
north coast of Alaska, Canada, north Canadian islands, some interior areas; coastal Greenland
ET: Tundra (characteristics)
-average temperature of warmest month > 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit) < 10 degrees Celsius
-severe winters and cool summers
ET: Tundra (mechanisms)
-high latitudes = low solar radiation input
-dominance by stable air and Polar High pressure cell
-cold air cannot hold much moisture = low precipitation
ET: Tundra (vegetation)
-grasses, sedges, mosses, and lichens
-area of permafrost
the permanently frozen subsoil below about .5-1 meter depth
EF: Ice Cap (location)
ice caps of Greenland and Antarctica
EF: Ice Cap (characteristics)
-average temperature of warmest month < 0 degrees Celsius (no months when the average is above freezing)
-strong downslope or katabatic winds in many areas
EF: Ice Caps (mechanisms)
-high latitudes = low solar radiation input
-permanent ice = low temperatures = permanent ice = low temperatures, etc. (negative feedback situation)
-high albedo rates, up to 80%
EF: Ice Caps (vegetation)
-NONE, permanent ice and snow
highland climates
areas of high elevation with generally cooler and wetter conditions than surrounding lowlands
highland climates (location)
mountainous areas: Rockies, Sierra Nevada, Cascades, the Andes, Himalayas, and Tibetan Plateau
highland climates (characteristics)
-diverse complex of microclimates
example of microclimate characteristic of highland climate
north facing slope vs. south facing slope, windward vs. leeward
highland climates (mechanisms)
high elevation with divers, rugged topography
highland climates (vegetation)
variable; zonation with elevation