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110 terms

TAKS Vocabulary Review - Mod 12

10th Grade Social Studies TAKS
STUDY
PLAY
Sub-Saharan Africa .
The land south of the Sahara Desert in Africa that includes some of the world's richest mineral deposits and fertile land.
Straits of Hormuz
A narrow body of water linking the Persian Gulf with the Gulf of Oman causing a choke point.
1215
The year the Magna Carta, the cornerstone of English justice and law was signed
Popular Sovereignty
The concept that political power rests with the people who create and can alter or abolish government.
Separation of Powers .
Organization of government whichinto three branches - legislative, executive and judicial; proposed by Montesquieu
Nullification Crisis
prelude to the Civil War. South Carolina believed a State had the power to override the Federal (National) Government
Renaissance
Rebirth of ideas, art, and architecture of the Greeks and Romans
Civil War
U.S. was divided over the issues of states rights and slavery
Latitude
flat - horizontal lines on a map
Longitude
up and down - vertical lines on a map
Humanism
Renaissance Value that humans are important. It shifted the focus from the after life (religion) to a person's life on earth
Migration
movement of people from on country or location to another
Printing Press
Machine that allowed text to be mass produced which allowed the spreading of ideas
Barriers
Thes slow down movement/migration
Natural Barriers
mountains, deserts and oceans
Diffusion/spatial exchange (cultural diffusion)
the spread of ideas, people and places to new places
International Trade
exchange of goods and ideas (commerce) between the new nations and different parts of the world expanded
States Rights
issue of the Civil War. South believed the States had more power than the Federal Government
Canals
artificial waterway for navigation, irrigation
Straits
a narrow passage of water connecting two large bodies of water
Protestant Reformation
movement that began to correct problem in the Roman Catholic Church. It caused a split and the development of Protestant Churches
Abraham Lincoln
President of the United States during the Civil War
Emancipation Proclamation
Statement made by Abraham Lincoln which essentially freed the slaves
Panama Canal
water way through Panama that shortens the distance by water from East coast of the US to the West Coast
95 Theses
Martin Luther's ideas that he posted on the chuch door at Wittenburg which questioned the Roman Catholic Church. This act began the Reformation
Suez Canal
water way through Egypt that connect the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea
Indulgences
pardon for sin. Martin Luther questioned the churches authority to pardon sin and especially the idea that you could buy the pardon
Secularism
belief in worldly rather than spiritual ideas
Irrigation Canals
technology used by early farmers to get water to the crops
Schism
split in the church
The Senate
Part of the Legislative Branch whose job is to makes the Laws
Subsistence agriculture
having just enough food to survive with very little left over
Scientific Revolution
surge in scientific discovery in Europe
Mesoamerica civilizations
developed complex societies such as Maya and Aztec
Traditional economy
basic economy that was used in early farming and hunting and gathering societies
Age of Exploration & Colonization
Europeans explored and conquered much of the world. Goal was to find trade route to Asia
Andean civilization
developed complex societies such as the Inca
Cottage industry
making goods out of the home
Imperialism
strong nations seek to dominate other countries (territories) politically, economically, or socially
Industrial Revolution
shift from agriculture to industry (commercial industry) mass production of goods. It also led to the growth of cities and global trade
Bartering
trading goods or services for other goods or services
Columbian Exchange
transfer of plants, animals, disease, and cultures between Europe, Asia and Africa (Old World) and North and South America (New World). It started with Christopher Columbus to the Americas in 1492
Commercial Agriculture
mass production of food
Famine
extreme hunger and scarcity of food
Subsistence economy
similar to traditional economy and associated with subsistence agriculture
Factory System
the production of goods in a factory through the use of machines and a large number of workers
Standard of living
quality of life, such as housing, health, education
Atlantic Slave Trade
millions of Africans were enslaved and transported across the Atlantic Ocean to work on plantations in the Americas and Caribbean region
Communism/Command Economy
an economic system in which all means of production are owned by the people, private property does not exist, and all goods and services are shared equally
Magnetic Compass
Chinese invention that helped make sea travel across the Atlantic Ocean possible
Absolute Monarchy
king/queen who has unlimited power
Capitalism/Market Economy
an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit (money)
Enlightenment
18th century European movement that applied reason to all aspects of society and help changed government
John Locke
Proposed the ideas of natural rights - life liberty, property
Cuneiform
writing system in the Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia
Karl Marx
economic thinker that developed communism
ziggurats
Temples in the Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia
Montesquieu
Proposed that a government should have 3 branches
Adam Smith
economic thinker that supported capitalism
Fertile Crescent
early river valley civilization located in modern day Iraq on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Natural Rights / Individual Rights
Life, Liberty, property or Life, Liberty, the Pursuit of Happiness
Cotton Gin
invented by Eli Whitney it removed the seeds from cotton quicker than by hand which helped increase production
Henry Ford
He created the first assembly line used for manufacturing of automobiles
Urban
This is also referred to as a city
Hammurabi
Mesopotamian king who created the first written law code
Glorious/Bloodless Revolution
England's overthrow of the monarchy and establishment of a constitutional monarchy (representative government)
English Bill of Rights
guaranteed/protected basic rights of the English citizens and foundation for US Bill of Rights
Silk Road
trade route that went from China to the Middle East and into Europe - called the Silk Road b/c of the Silk only coming from China
Constitutional Monarchy
rulers power is limited by law - Great Britain's current form of government since Glorious Revolution
Industrialized
having industries for the machine production of goods
Labor force
people in a society that are willing and able to work
Representative democracy
citizens vote for representatives who make and enforce the laws. US form of government
Demographics
statistical data of a population like - GDP per capita, Life Expectance, Literacy Rate, Infant mortality, ethnicity, religion etc
Founding of Jamestown
1607 first colony in America. Established representative government based on the British system of government
Literacy Rate
percent of people in a country that can read and write
Infant Mortality
average number of children that die by the age of 5
Life Expectancy
average number of years people live
Per Capita Income
average income per person
Theocracy
government where the religious leader run the government
Monotheism
belief in one god
Polytheism
belief in many gods
Declaration of Independence
sent to Britain (George III) with the grievances the Colonist had with England and why they were going to become their own Nation
Thomas Jefferson
He wrote the Declaration of Independence, was the 3rd president of the U.S.A. and made the Louisiana purchase
Oligarchy
government ruled by a few powerful people
George Washington
He was commander of the Continental Army, defeated Cornwallis at the Battle Yorktown, and 1st president of the U.S. A.
Articles of Confederation
US first plan of government that failed because of the weak central (national) government
Federalist
supporters of the Constitution. They favored a strong national government.
Nationalism
pride in ones country
Federalist Papers
Articles published to get support for the Constitution.
Self Determination
right of groups of people to create their own nation
Direct Democracy
government where citizens vote directly on laws - ex: Athens
Anti-Federalist
opposed to the Constitution because it gave too much power to the national government and not enough to the states. They also wanted individual rights protected
Republic
government were citizens elect representatives ex: Rome Greece
Draco
Greek reformer who wrote a harch law code
Totalitarianism
A form of government that controls every aspect of public and private life. EX: Hitler in Germany
1791
Year that the first 10 amendments to the Constitution were made which protected the rights of individuals from abuses of the national government
Justinian
Emporer of the Byzantine Empire who wrote a law code
Middle Ages
period in Europe that began after the fall of the Roman Empire Characterized by feudalism, Roman Catholic Church was the unifier of the age with more power than Kings/Lords
Federalism
division of power between the national (federal) and state governments - ex.: national gov't coins money and the state gov't cannot
1066
Battle of Hastings - centralized government
Limited Government
restrictions on the powers the government has like states cannot create money
Iron Curtain
Term used to describe the division between Western (democratic) Europe and Eastern (communist) Europe
Republicanism
The form of government where people elect representatives the create and enforce laws
Crusaders
Christian warriors sent to regain the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims that controlled
Checks and Balances
each branch of government has a way to restrict/check the actions of the other 2 branches
Cathedrals
Gothic Architecture used to show religious spirit during the Middle Ages
Magna Carta
law code signed by King John of England that limited his power and was the first time for limited government
Bubonic Plague
disease brought to Europe from the Mongols during the Middle Ages. It killed 1/3 of the population and helps end Feudalism
Inalienable/Unalienable
Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness same as natural or individual rights
Winston Churchill
Leader of Great Britain in WWII who coined the phrase Iron Curtain