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cytochalasin B is a chemical that disrupts microfilament formation. this chemical would interfere with _______
if a fragment of a chromosome breaks off and then reattaches to the original chromosome but in the reverse direction, the resulting chromosomal abnormality is called an _________
a cell undergoes reproduction, and 2 genetically identical daughter cells result during _____ _______
the creation of genetically identical offspring by a SINGLE parent, without the participation of sperm&egg
binary fission is classified as asexual reproduction because the genetically identical offspring inherit their DNA from a ....
fibers composed of roughly equal amounts of DNA & protein molecules. too thin to see with a light microscope
a chromosome consists of 2 identical ________ when the cell is preparing to divide and has duplicated its chromosomes, but before the duplicates actually separate
during _______ a cell's metabolic activity is very high and the cell performs its various functions within the organism
during the ______ phase, a cell actually divides
only accounts for about 10% of the total time required for the cell cycle
during _______ the nucleus and its contents (most importantly duplicated chromosomes) divide and are evenly distribute, forming 2 daughter nuclei
football-shaped structure of microtubules that guides the separation of the 2 sets of daughter chromosomes
clouds of cytoplasmic material that contains pairs of centrioles in animal cells
(spindle microtubules emerge from these)
during ______ changes occur in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
within the nucleus, the chromatin fibers become more tightly coiled and folded
during ______ the mitotic spindle is fully formed, with its poles at opposite ends of the cell
________ begins when the 2 centromeres of each chromosome come apart, separating the sister chromatids.
once separated, each sister chromatid is considered a full-fledged daughter chromosome
during _______, the cell elongation that started in anaphase continues, and mitosis is eventually finished
the division of the cytoplasm -- usually occurs along with telophase--
with 2 daughter cellscompletely separating soon after the end of mitosis
at the site of a cleavage furrow, the cytoplasm has a ring of _________ made of actin
animal cells must be in contact with a solid surface (like a culture dish/extracellular tissue matrix) to divide
cell cycle control system
a cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle
these can spread into neighboring tissues and other body parts, displacing normal tissue and interrupting organ function
cancers that originate in the external/internal coverings of the body (like skin/intestine lining)
cells with two sets of homologous chromosomes.
humans & most other animals, and many plants are _____ organisms
production of gene combinations different from those carried by the original parental chromosomes
organism with more than 2 sets of homologous chromosomes in its body cells (ex: tree frog)
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