opposite of prophase in terms of nuclear changes
production of ______ in diploid cells is a function of mitosis in humans
cytochalasin B is a chemical that disrupts microfilament formation. this chemical would interfere with _______
it's hard to observe the individual chromosomes during ______ because
if a fragment of a chromosome breaks off and then reattaches to the original chromosome but in the reverse direction, the resulting chromosomal abnormality is called an _________
extra copies of chromosomes aside from 21 are probably _______
a cell undergoes reproduction, and 2 genetically identical daughter cells result during _____ _______
structures that contain most of the cell's DNA
the creation of genetically identical offspring by a SINGLE parent, without the participation of sperm&egg
fertilization of an egg by a sperm
cell division where they divide in half
binary fission is classified as asexual reproduction because the genetically identical offspring inherit their DNA from a ....
in an amoeba, cell division plays the role of ______
development, growth, and repair
in the human body, cell division plays the role of....
fibers composed of roughly equal amounts of DNA & protein molecules. too thin to see with a light microscope
the ______ is visible near the center of each chromosome
a chromosome consists of 2 identical ________ when the cell is preparing to divide and has duplicated its chromosomes, but before the duplicates actually separate
during _______ a cell's metabolic activity is very high and the cell performs its various functions within the organism
during the ______ phase, a cell actually divides
only accounts for about 10% of the total time required for the cell cycle
during _______ the nucleus and its contents (most importantly duplicated chromosomes) divide and are evenly distribute, forming 2 daughter nuclei
during _________ the cytoplasm is divided in 2
are the 5 main stages of _________
football-shaped structure of microtubules that guides the separation of the 2 sets of daughter chromosomes
clouds of cytoplasmic material that contains pairs of centrioles in animal cells
(spindle microtubules emerge from these)
during ______ the cell synthesizes new molecules and organelles
during ______ changes occur in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
within the nucleus, the chromatin fibers become more tightly coiled and folded
nuclear envelope breaks into fragments and disappears
during ______ the mitotic spindle is fully formed, with its poles at opposite ends of the cell
________ begins when the 2 centromeres of each chromosome come apart, separating the sister chromatids.
once separated, each sister chromatid is considered a full-fledged daughter chromosome
during _______, the cell elongation that started in anaphase continues, and mitosis is eventually finished
the division of the cytoplasm -- usually occurs along with telophase--
with 2 daughter cellscompletely separating soon after the end of mitosis
during _________ in animal cells, a cleavage furrow forms and the cell pinches into 2
a shallow indentation in the cell surface
at the site of a cleavage furrow, the cytoplasm has a ring of _________ made of actin
membranous disk formed when vesicles fuse
a protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide
crowded cells stop dividing during this
scientists have discovered at least 50 different growth factors that can trigger....
animal cells must be in contact with a solid surface (like a culture dish/extracellular tissue matrix) to divide
cell cycle control system
a cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle
abnormally growing mass of body cells
if abnormal cells remain at the original site
these can spread into neighboring tissues and other body parts, displacing normal tissue and interrupting organ function
spread of cancer cells beyond their original site
cancers that originate in the external/internal coverings of the body (like skin/intestine lining)
arise in tissues that support the body, such as bone & muscle
cancers of blood-forming tissues (like bone marrow/spleen/lymph nodes)
typical body cell in humans with 46 chromosomes
22 remaining pairs of chromosomes found in males & females
sequence of stages leading from the adults of one generation to the adults of the next
cells with two sets of homologous chromosomes.
humans & most other animals, and many plants are _____ organisms
egg&sperm cells are collectively known as ____
cell with a single chromosome set is a ____ cell-- only 1 member of each homologous pair
if you are female, all your chromosomes are fully _______.not so with guys (X & Y)
where 2 homologous (nonsister) chromatids are attached to each other
production of gene combinations different from those carried by the original parental chromosomes
magnified images of someone's chromosomes arranged in pairs
when members of a chromosome pair fail to separate
abnormal numbers of sex chromosomes don't usually affect _________
organism with more than 2 sets of homologous chromosomes in its body cells (ex: tree frog)
when a fragment of a chromosome is lost
when a fragment from 1 chromosome joins to a sister chromatid or homologous chromosome
when a fragment of a chromosome reattaches to the original one, but in reverse
attachment of a chromosomal fragment to a non-homologous chromosome
______ have a single set of chromosomes
humans have ____pairs of homologous chromosomes
this provides for..
cell replacement &
signal the cell cycle control system
this is affected by anchorage, cell density, and chemical growth factors
this differs for plant and animal cells
the cell cycle _____ cells
_______ reproduce by binary fission
prokaryotic cells reproduce ______ by cell division
accidents during meiosis can alter chromosome _______
meiosis _____ chromosome number from diploid to haploid
homologous chromosomes may carry different versions of the genes
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