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109 terms

Milady Chapter 20 Perms & Relaxers

Perms and Relaxers
Chemical Texture Services
are hair services that cause a chemical change that alters the natural wave pattern of the hair
Permanent Waving
Adding wave or curl to hair
removing curl, leaving the hair smooth and wave-free
Curl Re-Forming
soft curl permanents loosening overly curly hair such as when tight curls and turned into loose curls or waves.
Hair Structure
Cuticle, Cortex and Medulla
Tough exterior layer of the hair (is not directly involved in the texture or movement of the hair)
Middle layer of te hair located directly beneath the cuticle layer (is responsible for the incredible strength and elasticity of human hair)
Inner layers of the hair (does not play a role in chemical texture sevices)
Potential Hydrogen
pH Scale
0 - 14
0 - 6.9
7.1 - 14
Natural pH of Hair
4.5 - 5.5
Chemical Texturizers
raise the pH of the hair to an alkaline state in order to soften and swell the hair shaft
Sotfen in hair
opens the cuticle layer and allows the solution to reach the cortex layer
Damaged hair
needs less alkaline
Building blocks of hair
Amino Acid, Peptide bonds, Polypeptide chains, Keratin Proteins, Side bonds
Amino Acid
are compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur
Peptide bonds (end bonds)
are chemical bonds that join amino acids together
Polypeptide chains
are long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds
Keration proteins
are long, coiled polypeptide chains
Side Bonds
are disulfide, salt and hydrogen bonds that cross-link polypeptide chains together
is made up of millions of polypeptide chains cross-linked by three types of side bonds (disulfide, salt and hydrogen)
Disulfide Bonds
Strong chemical side bonds formed when the sulfur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined together (the strongerst of the 3 side bonds, accounting for about 1/3 of the hairs overall strength) (The chemical physical changes in disulfide bonds make permanent waving, curl-reforming and relaxing possible)
Salt Bonds
are relatively weak physical side bonds that are the resultof an attraction between negative and positive eletrical charges (easily broken by changes in pH and they re-form when the pH returns to normal) (1/3 of the hairs strength)
Hydrogen bonds
are weak physical side bonds that are also result of an attraction between opposite electrical charges (can be broken by water or heat) (re-form as the hair dries or cools) (1/3 of the hairs strenght)
Permanent Wave alters
the side bonds only when done correctly
Permanent Waving
is a 2-step process, the hair undergoes a physical changes caused by wrapping the hair on perm rods and then the hair under goes a chemical change caused by the application of permanent waving solution and neutralizer
Rod size
determines the size of the curl
The rod shape and wrapping method
determines the shape and type of curl
Concave Rods
have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends
Straight Rods
are equal in diameteralong their entire length or curling area
Soft Bender Rods
are usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod
Loop Rod or Circle Rod
are usually 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod
End Paper or End Wraps
are absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping the winding hair on the perm rods
Double Flat Wrap
1 paper under the strand and another over the strand of hair
Single Flat Wrap
Similar to the double flat wrap but uses only one end paper places over the top of the top of the strand of hair
Bookend Wrap
uses one end paper folded in half over the hair ens like a envelope.
Base Sections
are subsections of panels into which the hair is divided for perm wrapping: one rod is normally placed on each base section
Base Placement
refers to the position of the rod in relation to its base section
On Base
Sits in between the top and bottom parting, starts 45 degrees above the center
Half Off-Base
Sits on the bottom parting, starts 90 degrees from the center
Off Base
Sits under the bottom parting, starts 45 degrees below the center
Base Direction
refers to the angle at which the rod is positioned on the head: horizontally, vertically or diagonally
Croquignole Perm Wrap
wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers
Spiral Perm Wrap
hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod, which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, like the stripes on the candy cane.
Double-rod wrap (Piggyback Wrap)
the hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to the midway down the hair shaft and another rod is used to wrap the remaining hair strand in the same direction
Alkaline permanent waving solution
softens and swells the hair, and they open the cuticle, permitting the solution to penetrate into the cortex
Once in the cortex, the waving solution breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction called _________
Thioglycolic Acid
a colorless iquid with a storng, unpleasant odor, is the most common reducing agent in permanent wave solutions
Alkaline Waves
Cold Waves
Ammonium Thioglycolate (ATG)
which is alkaline and is the active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents
Alkaline Waves
have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6 use ammonium thioglycolate as the reducing agent and process at room temperature without the addition of heat
Acid Waves
glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG)
Glyceryl Monothioglycolate (GMTG)
is the main active ingredient in true acid an acid-balanced waving lotions. It has a low pH
True Acid Waves
have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 and require heat to process; they process more slowly then alkaline waves and do not usually produce as firm a curl as alkaline waves GMTG is the active ingredient
Neutral pH for hair
Even the strongest acid waves also contains some ____________
Acid-balanced Waves
have a 7.0 or neutral pH; because of their higher pH, the process at room temperture
Exothermic waves
create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up the processing
An ___________ chemical reaction is one that absorbs heat from its surrounding.
Endothermic waves
are activated by an outside heat source, usually a converntional hood dryer
Ammonia-free waves
are perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia
Alkaline/Cold Waves
ATG - Room Temperature - Coarse, Thick or Resistant Hair
Exothermic Waves
Ammonium, Thioglycolate - Eothermic - Coarse, Thick or Resistant Hair
True Acid Wave
GMTG - Endothermic - extremely porouse or very damaged hair
Acid-Balanced Wave
GMTG - Room Temperature - Porous to Normal Hair
Ammonia-Free Wave
Monoethanolamine (MEA)/Aminomethylpropanol (AMP) - Room Temperature - Roous to Normal Hair
Thio-Free Wave
Mercaptamine/Cysteamine - Room Temperature - Porous to Normal Hair
Low-pH Waves
Ammonium Sulfite/Ammonium Bisulfite - Endothermic - Normal, Fine or Damaged Hair
Overprocessed Hair
can end up overlly curly or can even end up not holding the curl
If too many ____________ _____ are broken the hair will be to weak to hold a firm curl.
disulfide bonds
Underprocessed Hair
too few disulfide bonds are broken, the hair will not be sufficiently softened and will not be able to hold the desired curlk
Thio Neutralization
stops the action of the waving solution and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form
Neutralization performs 2 important functions:
1. Any waving solution that remains in the hair is deactivated (neutralized)
2. Disulfide bonds that were broken by the waving solution are rebuilt
Basic Permanent Wrap (Straight Set Wrap)
is a wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel ove in the same direction and are positioned on equal-sized bases; all the base sections are horizontal and are the same length and width as the perm rod.
Base Control
is the position of the tool in relation to its base section, determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped
Curvature Permanent Wrap
partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head
Weave Technique
uses zigzag partings to divide base areas
Chemical Hair Relaxing
is a process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form
Common types of chemical hair relaxers are ___ _______ _______ __ _______ __________
thio (ammonium thioglycolate) and sodium hydroxide
Thio Relaxers
use the same ATG that is used in permanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher pH (above)
Thio Relaxers
are also thicker. For better control of the product.
the measurement of the thickness or thinness of a liquid that affects how the fluid flows
Neutralizer used with Thio Relaxers
is an oxidizing agent, usually hydrogen peroxide, just as in perments
Japanese Thermal Straighteners or Thermal Reconditioning
combines use of a thio relaxer with flat ironing
Steps in Japanese Thermal Straighteners
- the straightener is applied to sections, distributed evenly, and processed until the hair is rinsed thoughly for about 10 minutes
- Conditioned
- Blown dry
- Flat ironed (several passes of the flat iron are required for each section)
Hydroxide Relaxer
active ingredient is hydoxide ions, is a very strong alkaline with a pH over 13
Metal Hydroxide Relaxers
are ionic compounds formed by a metal sodium, potassium or lithium which is combined with oxygen and hydrogen
Lye-Based Relaxers
commonly contains sodium hydroxide, are the oldest and still most common relaxes
No-Lye Relaxers
contain lithium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide relaxers are often advertised and sold as no mix-no lye relaxers
Base Cream (protective base cream)
is an oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing
Base Relaxers
require the application of a protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to te application of the relaxer
No-Base Relasers
do not require the application of a protective base cream. They contain a protective base cream that is designed to melt at body temperature
Relaxers Strengths
mild, regular and super
Mild - Strength Relaxers
are formulated for fine, color-treated or damaged hair
Regular - Strenght Relaxers
are intended for normal hair texture with a medium natural curl
Super - Strenght Relaxers
used for maximum straightening on very coarse, extremely curly, and resistant hair
Hydroxide Neutralization
is an acid-alkali neutralization that neutralizes the alkaline residues left in the hair by a hydroxide relaxers and lowers the pH of the hair and scalp
Hydroxide Relaxers Neutralization
does not involve oxidation or rebuilding disulfide bonds. The pH remains high even after a thorough rinsing. The application of an acid-balanced shampoo or a normalizing lotion neutralizes any remaining hydroxide ions to lower the pH of the hair and scalp
Keratin Straightening Treatments
contains silicone polymers and formalin or similar ingredients, which release formaldehyde gas when treated to high temperatures
Sodium Hydroxide
pH 12.5 - 13.5, Lye Relaxer, Very Effective for extremely curly hair may cause scalp irritation and damage the hair
Lithium Hydroxide & Potassium Hydroxide
pH 12.5 - 13.5, no mix, no-lye relaxer, very effective for extremely curly hair, may cause scalp irritation and damage the hair
Guanidine Hydroxide
pH 13 - 13.5, no-lye relaxer, causes less skin irritation than other hydroxide relaxers, more drying to hair with repeated use
Ammonium Thioglycolate
pH 9.6 - 10.0, thio relaxers, no-lye relaxer, compatible with soft curl permanents, strong unpleasant ammonia smell
Ammonium Sulfite/Ammonium bisulfite
pH 6.5 - 8.5, low pH relaxer, no-lye relaxer, less damaging to hair, does not sufficiently relax extremely curly hair
Soft Curl Permanent
is a combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent that is wrapped on large rods to make existing curl large and looser