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Perms and Relaxers

Chemical Texture Services

are hair services that cause a chemical change that alters the natural wave pattern of the hair

Permanent Waving

Adding wave or curl to hair


removing curl, leaving the hair smooth and wave-free

Curl Re-Forming

soft curl permanents loosening overly curly hair such as when tight curls and turned into loose curls or waves.

Hair Structure

Cuticle, Cortex and Medulla


Tough exterior layer of the hair (is not directly involved in the texture or movement of the hair)


Middle layer of te hair located directly beneath the cuticle layer (is responsible for the incredible strength and elasticity of human hair)


Inner layers of the hair (does not play a role in chemical texture sevices)


Potential Hydrogen

pH Scale

0 - 14


0 - 6.9


7.1 - 14

Natural pH of Hair

4.5 - 5.5

Chemical Texturizers

raise the pH of the hair to an alkaline state in order to soften and swell the hair shaft

Sotfen in hair

opens the cuticle layer and allows the solution to reach the cortex layer

Damaged hair

needs less alkaline

Building blocks of hair

Amino Acid, Peptide bonds, Polypeptide chains, Keratin Proteins, Side bonds

Amino Acid

are compounds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur

Peptide bonds (end bonds)

are chemical bonds that join amino acids together

Polypeptide chains

are long chains of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds

Keration proteins

are long, coiled polypeptide chains

Side Bonds

are disulfide, salt and hydrogen bonds that cross-link polypeptide chains together


is made up of millions of polypeptide chains cross-linked by three types of side bonds (disulfide, salt and hydrogen)

Disulfide Bonds

Strong chemical side bonds formed when the sulfur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined together (the strongerst of the 3 side bonds, accounting for about 1/3 of the hairs overall strength) (The chemical physical changes in disulfide bonds make permanent waving, curl-reforming and relaxing possible)

Salt Bonds

are relatively weak physical side bonds that are the resultof an attraction between negative and positive eletrical charges (easily broken by changes in pH and they re-form when the pH returns to normal) (1/3 of the hairs strength)

Hydrogen bonds

are weak physical side bonds that are also result of an attraction between opposite electrical charges (can be broken by water or heat) (re-form as the hair dries or cools) (1/3 of the hairs strenght)

Permanent Wave alters

the side bonds only when done correctly

Permanent Waving

is a 2-step process, the hair undergoes a physical changes caused by wrapping the hair on perm rods and then the hair under goes a chemical change caused by the application of permanent waving solution and neutralizer

Rod size

determines the size of the curl

The rod shape and wrapping method

determines the shape and type of curl

Concave Rods

have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends

Straight Rods

are equal in diameteralong their entire length or curling area

Soft Bender Rods

are usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod

Loop Rod or Circle Rod

are usually 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the entire length of the rod

End Paper or End Wraps

are absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping the winding hair on the perm rods

Double Flat Wrap

1 paper under the strand and another over the strand of hair

Single Flat Wrap

Similar to the double flat wrap but uses only one end paper places over the top of the top of the strand of hair

Bookend Wrap

uses one end paper folded in half over the hair ens like a envelope.

Base Sections

are subsections of panels into which the hair is divided for perm wrapping: one rod is normally placed on each base section

Base Placement

refers to the position of the rod in relation to its base section

On Base

Sits in between the top and bottom parting, starts 45 degrees above the center

Half Off-Base

Sits on the bottom parting, starts 90 degrees from the center

Off Base

Sits under the bottom parting, starts 45 degrees below the center

Base Direction

refers to the angle at which the rod is positioned on the head: horizontally, vertically or diagonally

Croquignole Perm Wrap

wrapped from the ends to the scalp in overlapping concentric layers

Spiral Perm Wrap

hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod, which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, like the stripes on the candy cane.

Double-rod wrap (Piggyback Wrap)

the hair is wrapped on one rod from the scalp to the midway down the hair shaft and another rod is used to wrap the remaining hair strand in the same direction

Alkaline permanent waving solution

softens and swells the hair, and they open the cuticle, permitting the solution to penetrate into the cortex

Once in the cortex, the waving solution breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction called _________


Thioglycolic Acid

a colorless iquid with a storng, unpleasant odor, is the most common reducing agent in permanent wave solutions

Alkaline Waves

Cold Waves

Ammonium Thioglycolate (ATG)

which is alkaline and is the active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents

Alkaline Waves

have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6 use ammonium thioglycolate as the reducing agent and process at room temperature without the addition of heat

Acid Waves

glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG)

Glyceryl Monothioglycolate (GMTG)

is the main active ingredient in true acid an acid-balanced waving lotions. It has a low pH

True Acid Waves

have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 and require heat to process; they process more slowly then alkaline waves and do not usually produce as firm a curl as alkaline waves GMTG is the active ingredient

Neutral pH for hair


Even the strongest acid waves also contains some ____________


Acid-balanced Waves

have a 7.0 or neutral pH; because of their higher pH, the process at room temperture

Exothermic waves

create an exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and speeds up the processing

An ___________ chemical reaction is one that absorbs heat from its surrounding.


Endothermic waves

are activated by an outside heat source, usually a converntional hood dryer

Ammonia-free waves

are perms that use an ingredient that does not evaporate as readily as ammonia

Alkaline/Cold Waves

ATG - Room Temperature - Coarse, Thick or Resistant Hair

Exothermic Waves

Ammonium, Thioglycolate - Eothermic - Coarse, Thick or Resistant Hair

True Acid Wave

GMTG - Endothermic - extremely porouse or very damaged hair

Acid-Balanced Wave

GMTG - Room Temperature - Porous to Normal Hair

Ammonia-Free Wave

Monoethanolamine (MEA)/Aminomethylpropanol (AMP) - Room Temperature - Roous to Normal Hair

Thio-Free Wave

Mercaptamine/Cysteamine - Room Temperature - Porous to Normal Hair

Low-pH Waves

Ammonium Sulfite/Ammonium Bisulfite - Endothermic - Normal, Fine or Damaged Hair

Overprocessed Hair

can end up overlly curly or can even end up not holding the curl

If too many ____________ _____ are broken the hair will be to weak to hold a firm curl.

disulfide bonds

Underprocessed Hair

too few disulfide bonds are broken, the hair will not be sufficiently softened and will not be able to hold the desired curlk

Thio Neutralization

stops the action of the waving solution and rebuilds the hair into its new curly form

Neutralization performs 2 important functions:

1. Any waving solution that remains in the hair is deactivated (neutralized)
2. Disulfide bonds that were broken by the waving solution are rebuilt

Basic Permanent Wrap (Straight Set Wrap)

is a wrapping pattern in which all the rods within a panel ove in the same direction and are positioned on equal-sized bases; all the base sections are horizontal and are the same length and width as the perm rod.

Base Control

is the position of the tool in relation to its base section, determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped

Curvature Permanent Wrap

partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head

Weave Technique

uses zigzag partings to divide base areas



Chemical Hair Relaxing

is a process or service that rearranges the structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form

Common types of chemical hair relaxers are ___ _______ _______ __ _______ __________

thio (ammonium thioglycolate) and sodium hydroxide

Thio Relaxers

use the same ATG that is used in permanent waving, but at a higher concentration and a higher pH (above)

Thio Relaxers

are also thicker. For better control of the product.


the measurement of the thickness or thinness of a liquid that affects how the fluid flows

Neutralizer used with Thio Relaxers

is an oxidizing agent, usually hydrogen peroxide, just as in perments

Japanese Thermal Straighteners or Thermal Reconditioning

combines use of a thio relaxer with flat ironing

Steps in Japanese Thermal Straighteners

- the straightener is applied to sections, distributed evenly, and processed until the hair is rinsed thoughly for about 10 minutes
- Conditioned
- Blown dry
- Flat ironed (several passes of the flat iron are required for each section)

Hydroxide Relaxer

active ingredient is hydoxide ions, is a very strong alkaline with a pH over 13

Metal Hydroxide Relaxers

are ionic compounds formed by a metal sodium, potassium or lithium which is combined with oxygen and hydrogen

Lye-Based Relaxers

commonly contains sodium hydroxide, are the oldest and still most common relaxes

No-Lye Relaxers

contain lithium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide relaxers are often advertised and sold as no mix-no lye relaxers

Base Cream (protective base cream)

is an oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing

Base Relaxers

require the application of a protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to te application of the relaxer

No-Base Relasers

do not require the application of a protective base cream. They contain a protective base cream that is designed to melt at body temperature

Relaxers Strengths

mild, regular and super

Mild - Strength Relaxers

are formulated for fine, color-treated or damaged hair

Regular - Strenght Relaxers

are intended for normal hair texture with a medium natural curl

Super - Strenght Relaxers

used for maximum straightening on very coarse, extremely curly, and resistant hair

Hydroxide Neutralization

is an acid-alkali neutralization that neutralizes the alkaline residues left in the hair by a hydroxide relaxers and lowers the pH of the hair and scalp

Hydroxide Relaxers Neutralization

does not involve oxidation or rebuilding disulfide bonds. The pH remains high even after a thorough rinsing. The application of an acid-balanced shampoo or a normalizing lotion neutralizes any remaining hydroxide ions to lower the pH of the hair and scalp

Keratin Straightening Treatments

contains silicone polymers and formalin or similar ingredients, which release formaldehyde gas when treated to high temperatures

Sodium Hydroxide

pH 12.5 - 13.5, Lye Relaxer, Very Effective for extremely curly hair may cause scalp irritation and damage the hair

Lithium Hydroxide & Potassium Hydroxide

pH 12.5 - 13.5, no mix, no-lye relaxer, very effective for extremely curly hair, may cause scalp irritation and damage the hair

Guanidine Hydroxide

pH 13 - 13.5, no-lye relaxer, causes less skin irritation than other hydroxide relaxers, more drying to hair with repeated use

Ammonium Thioglycolate

pH 9.6 - 10.0, thio relaxers, no-lye relaxer, compatible with soft curl permanents, strong unpleasant ammonia smell

Ammonium Sulfite/Ammonium bisulfite

pH 6.5 - 8.5, low pH relaxer, no-lye relaxer, less damaging to hair, does not sufficiently relax extremely curly hair

Soft Curl Permanent

is a combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent that is wrapped on large rods to make existing curl large and looser

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