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AP NSL Semester 1 Exam Review
Terms in this set (66)
Principles of Democracy
Popular Sovereignty, Federalism, Rule of Law, Equality under the Law, Limited Government (Separation, Checks and Balances), Individual Rights and Freedoms, Majority Rule w/ Minority Rights preserved.
The good of the community as a whole.
Some people vote for all
Government can only preform functions allowed by the people.
the sharing of political authority by the national and state governments. Generally found in bigger countries.
separation of powers
Division of government powers in executive, legislative, and judicial branches
checks and balances
powers granted to each of the three branches of government to control the other two.
rule of law
Everyone must follow the law: no one is above it.
framers of the constitution
the men who wrote the US constitution, including George Washington, James Madison, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, and others
McCulloch vs. Maryland
this case tested the elastic clause to see if the national government was allowed to have banks
there are two steps, and 2 methods for each step:
1) propose an amendment by getting
1. 2/3 of both houses or
2. 2/3 of state legislatures request a national convention;
2) Ratify the amendment by getting
1. 3/4 of state legislature to approve or
2. ratifying conventions in 3/4 of states to approve
Consent of the governed
agreement by the people of a nation to subject themselves to the authority to a government.
the doctrine that the numerical majority of an organized group can make decisions binding on the whole group
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
"necessary and proper clause": things not explicitly stated can be created (ex: airforce, navy, bank)
The cutting back of federal responsibilities and shifting them to the states
This event demonstrated the weakness of the Articles of Confederation: the government couldn't put down the fight. They saw they needed a stronger central government.
This amendment says that the powers not stated for the federal government are reserved to the states.
powers (denied, delegated, reserved, concurrent, expressed, implied)
denied, given, state government, both national and state government, said powers, implied
The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations. Got messy.
full faith and credit
first words of Article IV, Section 1 of the Constitution, which requires states to respect the "public acts, records, and judicial proceedings" of all the other states.
demographic trends (South, urban)
by region: mostly conservative; much more liberal
voting trends (latino [cuban, mexican]; AA; lower class; higher class [whether democrat or republican])
by races: mostly democrats (republicans, democrats); strongly democratic; democratic; republican
information gathered from a formal counting of people
The name given to the political process in which the general public votes on an issue of public concern.
Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters
primary and general elections
parties have primaries to select one candidate to represent the party in final (general) election against the other party
those already holding office. In congressional elections, incumbents usually win.
the process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions
The belief that one's political participation really matters - that one's vote can actually make a difference
1. Class (more income- more involvement and higher rates of voting) 2. Age (middle age and 65+ vote most) 3. Race (Blacks vote more and more) 4. Ethnicity (latinos vote less) 5. Gender Gap (since 1980 women have exceeding men's votes), Results of Elections; Surveys and Polls; Political Socialization
An informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire in childhood.
liberal, conservative, moderate
the process of reassigning representation based on population, after every census
The redrawing of congressional and other legislative district lines following the census, to accommodate population shifts and keep districts as equal as possible in population.
the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
when popular support switches from one party to another
To be a candidate, one must file for office, win a party primary, and then win a general election.,
• popular vote determines which electors represent each state
• electors meet to vote for President and Vice President
• winner-take-all system leads to targeting of populous states for campaigning
organization of people who share political, social or other goals; and agree to try to influence public policy to achieve those goals.
organized groups that attempt to influence the government by electing their members to important government offices
media and its roles
government controls airwaves: equal time rule- TV stations must provide equal access for all candidates; Fairness doctrine- required stations to provide "fair" coverage of issues: not allowed to defame someone (libel: written and slander: spoken) unless in public position; then they have to prove that it was meant to be defamitory
these raise money for candidates &/or parties
representatives of interest groups who contact lawmakers or other government officials directly to influence their policy making
The choices of a political party to run for an elected office.
the process which a candidate tries to become elected to a public office.
electoral contenders other than the two major parties. Not unusual, but they rarely win elections.
A body of attitudes, beliefs, and views pertaining to specific issues held by a significant proportion of a society.
super PACs: run ads and make money for candidate but can't coordinate with campaign.
"Rank and File" party members
not leadership in party: average person
the "party faithful"; the rank-and-file members who actually carry out the party's electioneering efforts
Baker vs. Carr
"1 person 1 vote"
Shaw vs. Reno
case that made it illegal to district based on race
-Bill is introduced, -Study by committees, -floor debate/amendments, -voting, -signed by president
A standing committee of the House of Representatives that provides special rules under which specific bills can be debated, amended, and considered by the house.
powers of congress
The power to levy, or collect, taxes, and to borrow money. Also has the power coin money, establish post offices, to fix standard weights and measures, and declare war, commerce power, bankruptcy, promote science and arts (copyright laws)take private property (eminent domain), necessary and proper,
powers of senate
override veto, impeach the president, declare war, and raise taxes
powers of house
start all appropriation/revenue bills, impeaches government officials, choose president if tie in electoral college
services performed by legislators or their staff for individual constituents
a tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches
presidential election process
campaign, primary elections/caucuses, general election, electoral college
office of management and budget
the executive agency that advises the President on the federal budget
a group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president
committee appointed by the presiding officers of each chamber to adjust differences on a particular bill passed by each in different form.
people who live in different geographic areas have different needs and therefore different interests
legislators informing their party of selection; assignments based on interest and area of expertise; committees are selected with intent of gaining power (can be reward or punishment)
a rule for limiting or ending debate in a deliberative body
Recommended textbook explanations
Magruder's American Government
United States Government: Our Democracy
Donald A. Ritchie, Richard C. Remy
Magruder's American Government (Texas)
Daniel M. Shea
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