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Meta-Ethics: The Naturalistic Fallacy
Terms in this set (17)
What else did he develop?
A major criticism against Naturalism and therefore many normative ethical theories such as NL/Utilitarianism.
Who developed it?
What was his criticism?
- That good cannot be defined as a fundamental property.
- It's illogical to go from an observation of the world to a moral imperative (an 'is' to an 'ought').
- Naturalism falls foul of the 'open question argument'.
For Moore, what is good?
A non-naturalistic property.
However, how does Moore differ to Naturalists?
He argues that good is a non-naturalistic fallacy.
How does Moore use the fallacy of composition argument?
He argues that it is illogical to link good to a natural property/something from the natural world.
Quote from Moore about the NF?
''The naturalistic fallacy is the assumption that because the words 'good' and, say, 'pleasant' necessarily describe the same objects, they must attribute the same quality to them.''
Quote from Moore about how the 'is-ought' dichotomy is illogical?
''It seems altogether inconceivable, how this new relation (an ought) can be a deduction from others (an is), which are entirely different from it.''
Example of this being illogical?
Eating chocolate is pleasurable, therefore we ought to eat chocolate.
We can always eat chocolate- health risks/costs etc.
Why does Naturalism fall foul of the 'open question argument'?
Because of it's subjective nature- who says that what you relate it to in the first place is good?
Example of Naturalism falling foul of this argument?
Naturalists may define good as harmony, but who is to say that harmony is good?
Example relating to the chocolate 'is-ought'?
Falls foul because yes, chocolate is pleasurable but we shouldn't eat it all of the time.
How does the statement, 'IVF is the most loving thing to do for infertile couples.' fall foul?
We shouldn't always allow IVF, it may not work causing psychological harm and many may not really be able to afford it.
Who defended Hume's dichotomy?
How did Baron develop Hume's dichotomy?
He added a hidden value statement.
'IVF is the most loving thing to do, doing loving things is a good thing as they cause happiness, therefore, the NHS ought to provide IVF free of charge.'
What do HVS do?
Qualify the statement, strengthening the 'is-ought' dichotomy by making it more logical.
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