Upgrade to remove ads
Radiation Protection Ch. 2
Terms in this set (102)
Ability to do work
Radiation refers to:
kinetic energy that passes from one location to another and can have many manifestations.
the full range of frequencies and wavelengths of electromagnetic waves
Electromagnetic spectrum is shown in terms of:
frequency, wavelength, and energy
Higher frequencies have
shorter wavelengths, and higher energies
As the wavelength ranges from largest to smallest,
frequencies and energy cover the corresponding smallest to largest ranges.
Types of radiation
1. Mechanical vibration of materials
2. The electromagnetic wave
Mechanical vibration of materials
The electromagnetic wave
a. Radio waves
d. Visible light
g. Gamma rays
In electromagnetic waves, electric and magnetic fields:
fluctuate rapidly as they travel through space.
Electromagnetic waves are characterized by their:
Dual nature of electromagnetic radiation (wave-particle duality)
form of radiation that can travel through space in the form of a wave, but can
interact with matter as a particle of energy.
The electromagnetic spectrum can be divided into two parts:
1. Ionizing radiation
2. Nonionizing radiation
2. gamma rays
3. high-energy ultraviolet radiation (energy above 10 eV)
1. low energy ultraviolet radiation
2. visible light
3. infrared rays
5. radio waves
Nonionizing radiations do NOT have:
sufficient kinetic energy to eject electrons from atoms
Electromagnetic spectrum is:
the complete range of frequencies and energies of electromagnetic radiation
If electromagnetic radiation is of a high enough frequency, it can:
transfer sufficient energy to some orbital electrons to remove them from the atoms to which they were attached.
Conversion of atoms to ions
Ionizing radiation has:
undesirable result of potentially producing some damage in the biologic material
The amount of energy transferred to electrons in biologic tissue by ionizing radiation is the basis of the concept of:
Electromagnetic radiation with high enough frequency transfers:
sufficient energy to orbital electrons to remove them from the atoms to which they were attached.
Another category of ionizing radiation is called:
Particulate radiation includes:
1. alpha particles
2. beta particles
Alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons, and protons are all:
subatomic particles that are ejected from atoms at very high speeds
Possess sufficient kinetic energy to be capable of causing ionization by direct atomic collision
Alpha particles are also known as:
Alpha particles are emitted from:
nuclei of very heavy elements, such as uranium and plutonium, during the process of radioactive decay
Radioactive decay is:
a natural occurring process in which unstable nuclei relieve that instability by various types of nuclear spontaneous emissions, one of which is the emission of charged particles.
Alpha particles each contain:
two protons and two neutrons
Alpha particles are simply:
helium atoms minus their electrons
Alpha particles have:
a large mass (approximately four times the mass of a hydrogen atom) and a positive charge twice that of an electron
Beta particles are also known as:
Particulate radiations vary in their ability to:
1. Are less penetrating than beta particles.
2. Lose energy quickly, travel a short distance in biologic matter, so they are considered virtually harmless as an external source of radiation.
3. As an internal source of radiation, can be very damaging if emitted from a radioisotope deposited in the body
Beta particles are identical to:
high-speed electrons except for their origin
Beta particles are:
8,000 times lighter than alpha particles and have only one unit of electrical charge (-1) as compared with the alpha's two units of electrical charge (+2)
Will not interact as strongly with their surroundings as alpha particles do.
Beta particle are capable of:
penetrating biologic matter to a greater depth than alpha particles, with far less ionization along their paths.
Alternate sources of high-speed electrons are produced in:
a radiation oncology treatment machine called a linear accelerator
Linear accelerators are used to:
▬ To treat superficial skin lesions in small areas
▬ To deliver radiation boost treatments to breast tumors at tissue depths typically not exceeding 5 to 6 cm
Beta rays with a lesser probability of interaction:
Can penetrate matter more deeply and therefore cannot be stopped by an ordinary piece of paper like an external alpha particle
For energies of less than 2 MeV, either a 1-cm-thick piece of wood or a 1-mm-thick lead shield would be:
sufficient for absorption.
Positively charged components of an atom
An isolated proton is simply an:
ionized hydrogen atom
isolated protons have a:
relatively small mass hat, however exceeds the mass of an electron by a factor of 1800.
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom constitutes its:
atomic number or "Z" number
The atomic number:
identifies an element and determines its placement in the periodic table of elements
the electrically neutral components of an atom
Have approximately the same mass as a proton
If two atoms have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons in their nuclei, they are referred to as:
If combinations of Z protons and so many neutrons leads to an unstable nucleus, then that combination is called a:
Equivalent dose (EqD) is a:
radiation quantity used for radiation protection purposes when a person receives exposure from various types of ionizing radiation.
the calculation of the effective does (EfD).
EfD is essentially a:
manufactured quantity that takes into account the dose for all types of ionizing radiation (alpha, beta, gamma, x-ray) to various irradiated organs or tissues in the human body (skin, gonadal tissue, thyroid)
By including the specific weighting factors for each of those parts of the body mentioned,
EfD takes into account the chance or risk that each of those body parts will develop radiation-induced cancer.
In the case of the reproductive organs, the risk of:
genetic damage (radiation damage to generations yes unborn) is considered.
The SI unit of EqD is the:
1 sievert equals:
Both occupational and nonoccupational dose limits are expressed as:
EfD and may be stated in sieverts (rem).
Produced by ionizing radiation while penetrating body tissues primarily by ejecting electrons from atoms composing the tissues
Destructive radiation interaction at the atomic level results in:
molecular change, and this in turn can cause cellular damage, leading to abnormal cell function or even entire loss of cell function.
If excessive cellular damage occurs, the living organism will have a significant possibility of exhibiting genetic or somatic changes such as:
Result of destructive radiation interaction at the atomic level
▬ Molecular change
▬ Cellular damage
▬ Organic damage
Example of organic damage
changes in blood count
Sources of ionizing radiation:
2. Manmade (artificial)
Ionizing radiation from environmental sources is called:
natural background radiation.
Three components of Natural background radiation:
▬ Terrestrial radiation
▬ Cosmic radiation
▬ Internal radiation from radionuclides
Terrestrial radiation is from:
radioactive materials in the crust of the earth.
Cosmic radiation is from:
the sun (solar) and beyond the solar system (galactic)
Internal radiation is from:
radioactive atoms (also known as radionuclides) that make up a small percentage of the body's tissue.
long-lived radioactive elements such as uranium-238, radium-226, and thorium-232 that emit densely ionizing radiations are present in variable quantities in the crust of earth.
37% of natural background radiation exposure comes primarily from:
the gaseous radionuclide radon and from a smaller amount of thoron.
Radon initially does not cling to other particles; rather, it behaves as a free agent that floats around in the soil and so is referred to as a:
A radionuclide is:
an unstable nucleus that emits one or more forms of ionizing radiation to achieve greater stability.
Terrestrial and internal radiation forms:
1. Alpha particles (helium nuclei)
2. Beta particles (electrons)
3. Gamma rays (similar to x-rays, but usually of higher energy)
Ionizing radiation created by humans for various uses is classified as:
manmade or artificial radiation.
If radiation from any of these natural sources grows larger because of accidental or deliberate human actions such as miming, the sources are termed:
enhanced natural sources.
Sources of manmade (artificial) radiation:
▬ Consumer products containing radioactive material
▬ Air travel
▬ Nuclear fuel for generation of power
▬ Atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing
▬ Nuclear power plant accidents as a consequence of natural disasters
▬ Medical radiation
Medical radiation exposure results from:
the use of diagnostic x-ray machines and radiopharmaceuticals in medicine
The two largest sources of artificial radiation are:
1. Diagnostic medical x-ray
2. Nuclear medicine procedures
Because of the large variety of radiologic equipment and differences in imaging procedures and in individual radiologist and radiographer technical skills, the patient dose for each examination varies according to:
the facility providing imaging services.
The amount of radiation received by a patient may be indicated in terms of:
1. ESE and glandular dose
2. Bone marrow dose
3. Gonadal dose
REDUCING THE POSSIBILITY OF THE
OCCURRENCE OF GENETIC DAMAGE IN
Through efficient application of radiation protection measures on the part of the radiographer.
By limiting the widespread substitution by many emergency department facilities
The number of medical procedures involving ionizing radiation has:
increased dramatically since the 1980s.
Because of this, exposure of the U.S. population from medical sources has:
In NCRP Report No. 93, medical radiation was estimated to contribute 0.54 mSv to manmade background radiation. In 2006, that number had increased to 3.0 mSv, an increase of:
more than a factor of 5
The main reason for the increase is increased usage of:
With the advent of multislice spiral CT, the utility of this imaging modality in areas such as emergency medicine has:
The use of CT does have tremendous medical benefit in:
the diagnosis of disease and trauma.
New total annual background radiation
The new total annual background radiation, 6.25 mSv per person, is almost twice as large as the old estimate of 3.6 mSv.
The amount of radiation received by a patient may be indicated in terms of:
1. Entrance skin exposure (ESE)
2. Bone marrow dose
3. Gonadal dose
What processes is the foundation of the interaction of x-rays with human tissue?
Why are long-term effects, such as an increased incidence of cancer in the exposed population living near Japan's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant, unable to be accurately determined?
It was extremely difficult to measure the amounts of radiation people received.
As of 2006, as reported in NCRP Report No. 160, what percentage of natural background comes from radon and thorn?
Which of the following are natural sources of ionizing radiation?
Radioactive elements in the crust of the earth and in the human body
An equivalent dose as low as 0.25 Sv delivered to the whole body may cause what within a few days?
a decrease in the number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
How is actual radiation dose to the global population form atmosphere fallout from nuclear weapons testing received?
It is not received all at once but instead is delivered over a period of years at changing dose rates.
What was the total average annual radiation exposure from manmade and natural radiation as of 2006?
6.3 mSv per year
The Russian liquidators who worked during 1986 and 1987 at the Chernobyl power complex demonstrated a statistically significant rise in the number of:
What is recognized as the main adverse health effect form the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power accident?
Increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in adults.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Radiation Protection Ch. 3
Radiation Protection Ch. 1
Rad protection chapter 1
Radiation Protection Ch. 7 Molecular and Cellular…
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 2 -Radiation: Types, Sources, and Doses Re…
Ch. 2 Radiation Types, Sources, & Doses Received
ch 2 Radiation:Types, Sources and Doses Recieved
Rad Pro in Med Radiography: Chpt 2
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
physics quiz answers
Ch. 8 vertebral column positioning
Exam 2 A&P 2