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Week 1 - Gut Overview
Terms in this set (87)
mid-clavicular (2), subcostal, transtubercular
What are the 4 planes of the anterolateral abdominal wall?
hypochondrium, lumbar, inguinal
What are the 3 lateral regions of the anterolateral abdominal wall?
At what rib level is the subcostal plane located?
the ______plane is at the level of the widest part of the iliac crest.
epigastric (foregut), umbilical (midgut), hypogastric (hindgut)
What are the 3 medial regions of the anterolateral abdominal wall?
skin, superficial (subcutaneous) fascia, deep fascia, muscles, transversalis fascia, endoabdominal (extraperitoneal) fat, parietal peritoneum (serous membrane)
What are the 7 layers of the anterolateral abdominal wall?
internal oblique, external oblique, transversus abdominis; rectus abdominis, pyramidalis
Name the 3 flat muscles and 2 strap muscles of the abdominal wall.
fatty (Camper's), membranous, membranous
The 2 layers of superficial (subcutaneous) fascia include ____ and ______which fuses with fascia lata of thigh. The ______layer can be sutured.
very large layer of fatty (camper's) superficial fascia
there is a potential space between ______ and _____fascia layers where fluid can build up typically due to trauma
endoabdominal fat, parietal peritoneum
organs are located between the _____ and ____ layers of the anterolateral abdomen
the inguinal ligament arises from the _____muscle
internal oblique, transversus abdominis
the ____ and ______ muscles contribute to the conjoint tendon
tendinous line which divides right and left rectus abdominus
lateral tendons of rectus abdominis muscles
lines of tendon which give appearance of six pack
rectus sheath, arcuate
the rectus abdominis is enclosed within _____except below the _____line where the posterior sheath is lacking and vessels may be torn forming a hematoma
the median peritoneal umblical fold/ligament is a remnant of _____
right and left umbilical arteries
the medial peritoneal umbilical folds/ligaments are remnants of ______
right and left inferior epigastric vessels
the lateral peritoneal umbilical folds/ligaments are remnants of _____. they are only the ones with blood flowing through
median, medial, lateral
What are the 3 infraumbilical peritoneal folds/ligaments?
falciform, left umbilical vein
at the very bottom edge of the _____ligament is the round (teres) ligament which is the only supraumbilical ligament, it is a remnant of ______
salivary glands (3), liver, pancreas
What are the 3 specialized glands that are too large for the gut wall?
oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, liver, gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, superior 1/2 descending duodenum
What are the 8 components of the foregut?
distal duodenum, small intestine, cecum, colon to splenic flexure
What are the 4 components of the midgut?
What supplies blood to the foregut?
What supplies blood to the midgut?
What supplies blood to the hindgut?
descending/sigmoid colon and rectum to proximal anal canal
What are the components of the hindgut?
What provides innervation to the foregut and midgut?
What provides innervation to the hindgut?
C6, 1/2, transport
the esophagus is about 10 inches long and begins at the level of the ____vertebrae. only ____inch(es) is in the abdomen. Its main role is _____.
developmental obstruction or blind pouch
the pyloric orfice of the stomach has 1 sphincter known as the _____sphincter
muscular part of stomach responsible for grinding action which produces growling sound of stomach
lower esophageal, external
the cardiac orfice of the stomach has 2 sphincters; ______which is always closed except during swallowing/emesis and the _____at the level of the thoracic diaphragm
a hiatal hernia in which the stomach herniates past diaphragm indicates ____sphincter failure
external (diaphragmatic), lower esophageal
acid reflux can indicate failure of ____ or ____sphincters
_____ulcers are associated with alcohol use
superior, descending, horizontal, ascending
What are the 4 sections of the duodenum?
folds of mucosa which appear rough in imaging
smooth 1st half of superior duodenum, it is the only part that is not retroperitoneal
major duodenal papilla
opening for pancreatic and bile ducts in descending duodenum
6-7 m (18-21 ft)
What is the average length of the small intestine?
duodenum, jejunum; ileum
What part of the small intestine functions in digestion? What parts in food/water absorption?
cecum, colon, rectum, anal canal
What are the 4 components of the large intestine?
suspensory muscle of duodenum
What muscle supports duodenojejunal junction/flexure?
mucosal folds, vasa recta, mesenteric fat, peyer's patches
the jejnum can be identified from the ileum by increase in ____ and _____length. the ileum has more enroaching ______ as well as lymph aggregates known as _____.
water, iron, calcium, magnesium
the large intestine functions to absorb ____ and excretes ____, _____, and ____.
portion of large intestine which gives it its sac-like appearance
cecum, anal canal, 4 1/2
the large intestine runs from _____ to _____ and is about _____feet long
free, omental, mesocolic
the transverse colon contains tenia coli which are longitudinal muscle bands, name the 3 bands.
omental (visceral periteonum) pouches containing fat producing weak spot in colon wall where herniations can occur
outpouching of colon wall-often into omental appendices; it may become inflamed
cecum, vermiform appendix
name the blind pouch at ileocecal junction. what lymphoid tissue is also found here?
anterior superior iliac spine, umbilicus
McBurney's point is located 1/3 between _____and _____ to help you locate the cecum and vermiform appendix
condition in which thoracic or abdominal viscera are inverted
ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
What are the 4 parts of the colon?
portion of colon retroperitoneal to right colic flexure
portion of colon between left colic flexure and phrenicocolic ligament, it is freely movable
_____ligament at splenic flexure helps to keep the transverse colon in place
portion of colon retroperitoneal at left colic flexure to sigmoid colon
portion of colon suspended from posterior abdominal wall
left, right, caudate, quadrate
What are the 4 lobes of the liver?
blood leaving the liver drains into inferior vena cava via ____vein
common hepatic, cystic, common bile, pancreatic, hepatopancreatic, major duodenal papilla
bile moves from R & L hepatic ducts to ____duct which joins _____duct forming _____duct. This joins with _____duct and enters ______ampulla opening into ______in descending duodenum
porta hepatis; portal vein, hepatic artery, hepatic bile duct, nerves, lymph
Name the site where blood enters and bile leaves liver and gallbladder. What are its 5 components?
where the liver is pushed up against the diaphragm there is a bare area, the edge around it is known as the _____ligament
transverse; ligamentum venosum, ligamentum teres; IVC, gallbladder
the _____fissure is found around porta hepatis. the left sagittal fissure is associated with _____ and ____ and the right with ____ and ____.
the ____sphincter is around bile/pancreatic ducts and ampulla. its constriction (empties or fills?) the gallbladder
the peritoneum is a _____membrane composed of one continuous sheet lining abdominal cavity, the inside is known as ______cavity and organs are found outside
_____peritoneum lines the abdominal wall
_____peritoneum lines organs
stomach, duodenal ampulla, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, spleen, pancreas tail
What 10 organs/organ sections are intraperitoneal?
kidneys, aorta, inferior vena cava, ureters
What 4 organs/structures are retroperitoneal?
intraperitoneal; duodenum, pancreas, ascending colon, descending colon
early in development, secondary retroperitoneal organs where classified as ______What are these 4 organs?
blood vessels and nerves travel between the ____of the peritoneum; it connects organ to posterior abdominal wall
mesentery between 2 organs
2 parts of lesser omentum include ______between liver and stomach and the ____between liver and duodenum.
developmentally, the ____omentum attaches to stomach to the posterior abdominal wall but the 2 layers fuse in adults and adhere to the ___colon
stomach, transverse colon; stomach, spleen; stomach diaphragm
the greater omentum has 3 parts: gastrocolic ligament attaching ___ to ____; gastrosplenic ligament attaching ____ to _____; and gastrophenic ligament attaching ____ to ____.
omental bursa, epiploic foramen
name the space posterior to lesser omentum. its opening is known as the ______
right subphrenic, left subphrenic, hepatorenal; paracolic gutters
the peritoneal cavity can be divided into the supracolic compartment above transverse colon including ____, ____, and ____recesses and an infracolic compartment composed of ____.
recess spanning right lobe of liver to diaphragm
recess spanning left lobe of liver to diaphragm
recess spanning liver to right kidney; ascites fluid can be drawn from this space when patient is lying on back
infracolic compartment along lateral sides of ascending and descending colon
Recommended textbook explanations
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb, Suzanne M. Keller
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb
Anatomy and Physiology
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