Periodic variations in atmospheric pressure. The disturbance consists of regions of air pressure above and below the equilibrium.
A rarefied area of lower atmospheric pressure (decrease atmospheric pressure below equilibrium)
The distance above or below the center line of a waveform
Threshold of Hearing
The generation, transmission, and reception of sound waves
Deals with how and why the brain interprets a particular sound stimulus. The mental perception of sound.
Two tones that differ only slightly in frequency and have approximately the same amplitude will produce an effect known as beats.
Fundamental Frequencies and Harmonics
Harmonics and their relative intensities (which determine and instruments characteristic sound) are called the timbre of an instrument.
When two or more waveforms are involved in producing a sound, their relative amplitudes can be different at any point.
The frequency measured in cycles per second is also called hertz (Hz), named after Heinrich Hertz, a German scientist who did pioneering work in electromagnetic waves during the 19th century.
The outward pressure motion/outward motion of sound.
Root Mean Square/ RMS
Average level of a signal over time.
Measurement of either maximum positive or negative signal level of a wave.
The total measurement of the positive-negative peak signal
dBm, dBu, dBSPL
dbm = Milliwatt
dbu = Voltage
dbSPL = decibel Sound Pressure Level
Phantom Power (specific to the 1604)
Aux Master section
1/4 inch Serial Connection that receives signal that goes in an out on the same channel
Aux Send section (Pre-fader vs. Post-fader)
1 and 2 Pre-Fader , 3 - 6 Post-Fader
Serial and Parallel connections
Serial - SID ( Serial Insert Dynamics )
Parallel - PAT ( Parallel Aux Time Based Effects )
Powering up/ down procedure for audio gear
Speakers on Last, Speakers off first
Inline vs. Split Bus consoles
Inline Console - Signal leaves and returns on the same channel
Split Bus Console - Signal leaves on one channel and returns on another
Sampling is the process of selecting units (e.g., people, organizations) from a population of interest so that by studying the sample we may fairly generalize our results back to the population from which they were chosen
(The number of measurements taken every second) -Time -Frequency -44.1 is typical sample rate Also determines the Frequency response
eliminates frequencies above the Nyquist Frequency and therefore eliminates aliases
Is a solution to quantization error
CD Quality audio
16 BIt / 44.1
the Nyquist Frequency is the highest frequency in a digital system.
the Nyquist Frequency is Half (1/2) Sample Rate
Audio Engineering Society / European Broadcast Union
Sony/Phillips Digital interface
Alesis Digital Audio Tape (Toslink---end of the cable)
Tascam Digital Interface
Pro Tools Native
The Pro Tools edition given to us at SAE
Mix window (inserts and sends)
Main Window in Pro Tools
Top Right heads up display Play,Stop,Bar Count,
The USB device that holds the Licensing
the combination of the trim, selector and grabber tool
Quick Key for creating a New Track in Pro Tools
Shift + Command + N
Quick Key to toggle between Mix and Edit windows
Command + =
Quick Key to create a new session in Pro Tools
Command + N
After creating an audio track or tracks in pro tools it is very important to check the destination of the audio files before recording occurs to verify this you must check disk allocation under the Set Up menu
Key Focus (Zoom keys)
a/z button on the right in the edit window for single key commands R & T
Slip, Grid, Shuffle, Spot
Audio Suite plug-in format
Most common time signature (on the staff, the key signature goes before the time signature)
Notes on a keyboard
C, C#, D, D#, E, F, F#, G, G#, A, A# B
Same note higher or lower
Beats & measures
Three different notes played at the same time
has the longest note duration in modern music
is a fourth (or a quarter) of a whole note. (Four quarter notes occupy the same amount of time as one whole note. Two quarters notes equal the duration of a half note.)
5 pin din connector
5 pin DIN connector (Deutshe Industrie Norm)
35241 Pin 1: Not Used Pin 2: Ground Pin 3: Not Used Pin 4: Receive Data Pin 5 Transmit Data
MIDI acronym =
"Musical Instrument Digital Interface"
General MIDI (channel 10 is used for percussion/drums)
C1 Bass/Kick Drum C#1 Side Stick D1 Acoustic Snare D#1 Clap E1 Electric Snare F1 Low Floor Tom F#1 Closed Hi-Hat G1 High Floor Tom G#1 Pedal Hi-Hat A1 Low Tom A#1 Open Hi-Hat B1 Low Mid Tom C2 Hi-Mid Tom
MIDI Time Code
a timing reference signal to synchronize pieces of equipment together. MIDI clock
SMPTE: "Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers"
timecode is a set of cooperating standards to label individual frames of video or film with a time code defined by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers in the SMPTE 12M specification
Rhythmically align notes to the tempo/meter grid
System exclusive (SysEx)
A part of the MIDI standard that allows synth manufacturers to define their own specific message formats. Unlike every other message format in the MIDI standard, sysex messages can be variable in length; they are marked by both a start byte (F0 hex) and an end byte (F7 hex).
Midi cable length
A MIDI cable should be less than 50 feet (anymore will degrade the signal)
Language MIDI uses to communicate
MIDI is a music description language in binary form in which each binary word describes an event of a musical performance
3 main categories of Audio Signal Processors
Spectral (um) Dynamic Range Time based & Modulation
Definition of Equalizer
A device or circuit that allow control over the relative amplitude of various frequencies within the audible bandwidth.
High Pass Filter
Passes high frequencies and attenuates lows.
Low Pass Filter
Is designed to pass low frequencies and attenuate high frequencies.
which controls more parameters of the sound than a graphic equalizer. A parametric equalizer can control three aspects of each frequency: level (boost or cut), the center or primary frequency and the bandwidth or range of each frequency.
Determines the amount of gain reduction applied to the signal once it exceeds the threshold
Explained in decibels per octave
The frequency at which the peak filter has the most effect on the signal
The frequency where attenuation begins to take effect
The frequency at which the slope begins to turnover or flatten out to a shelf
Compression vs. Limiting
9:1 and down is compression and 10:1 and up is limiting
Threshold, Ratio, Make Up Gain, Knee, Attack, Release
Dynamic vs Time based FX
Compression, EQ, Desser, Limiter, Noise Gate
Parallel vs Serial connections
Serial is one channel
Parallel is all of them
A signal processing device used to increase the dynamic range of the signal passing through it. -Expansion is the opposite of compression -Results in an increase in dynamic range, as opposed to a reduction.
De‐Esser and Sibilance
High frequency eq boost inserted in the compressor's "side chain" control circuit, so that frequencies in the sibilant range of 50 to 10kHz will cause more compression than other frequencies.
Blumlein Mic Technique
2 bidirectional or figure 8 mic
XY mic Technique
110 - French 17cm part
Spaced Pair (AB)
A technique where two stereo microphones are placed anywhere from 3 to 10 feet apart to create a time difference that the brain perceives as a stereo imaging effect
This angle between the capsules is known as the mutual angle) The stereo technique employed by the mic is XY coincident where the capsules are positioned coincidentally (as close as possible) and at 90 degrees to each other so that theoretically sound arrives at each capsule at the same time
Direct Injection (D.I.) Box
Converts High z (unbalanced) to low z (balanced) isolate signals
The proximity effect in audio is an increase in bass or low frequency response when a sound source is close to a microphone
If the first mic is 1 foot from a source, the second mic should be placed 3 feet from the first mic.
attenuate the level of the outgoing signal from the microphone, feeding the preamp
A mics sensitivity to direction
A device that converts a acoustics signal into digital or vise versa
A balanced three pin cable
+48v. Do not use on a ribbon microphone
Reduce mic movement
When recording, distortion can be introduced at.....