What is homeostasis?
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What is an enzyme and what roles do they play in the body?An enzyme is a catalyst in living things. (catalysts speed up chemical reactions and lower activation energy) Without enzymes the reactions would take place too slowly for us to survive.What is the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?Eukaryotic cells are much more large and complex than prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells separate DNA from the rest of the cell and prokaryotic cells don't. eukaryotic cells have a nucleus.How does temperature affect the function of an enzyme?If the temperature is too cold the reaction would still happen but much slower. If it's too high the reaction will happen too fast.How does pH affect the function of an enzyme?The pH changes the shape of the enzyme and makes it so the substrate can't fit. The substrate and enzyme need to fit perfectly so if the enzyme has changed shape, they won't fit therefore the enzyme activity decreases.How does substrate concentration affect the function of an enzyme?Enzyme activity increases. The concentration of the substrate increases the rate of reaction because it is more likely that the substrate will find an enzyme to run into.What is the function of the nucleus?The cell's brain Ribosome assembly begins hereWhat is the function of chromosomes?They hold DNAWhat is the function of the mitochondria?Power house of the cellWhat is the function of the rough/smooth endoplasmic reticulum?Lipids assemble Rough ER has ribosomes on itWhat is the function of the vacuole?Storage area for carbs and lipidsWhat is the function of lysosomes?Gets rid of toxins within enzymesWhat is the function of the golgi apparatus?Puts the finishing touches on proteinsWhat is the function of cytoplasm?It is everything in the cell but the nucleus and the membraneWhat is the function of the cytoskeleton?Keeps the cell's shapeWhat is the function of ribosomes?Beginning of protein assemblyWhat is the function of the cell membrane?Support of the cell that keeps everything togetherWhat is the function of the chloroplast?Photosynthesis happens hereWhat is the function of the cell wall?ProtectionWhat is active transport?Cell transport that requires energy (ATP)What is passive transport?Cell transport that doesn't require energyWhat are the types of active cell transport?Endocytosis, Exocytosis, and ion pumps.What happens during exocytosis?Takes the thing and pushes it outWhat happens during endocytosis?The cell ingests substancesWhat do ion pumps do in active transport?Moves substances from lower to higher concentration (which it doesn't want)What are the three types of passive cell transport?Osmosis, diffusion, and facilitated diffusion.What happens during diffusion?The particles move across the membrane until equilibrium is reached. They continue moving but equilibrium is still there.What happens during facilitated diffusion?Molecules can't diffuse across the membrane because they are too charged or too large so they go through special protein channels.What happens during osmosis?Water goes in/out of the cell.Draw the cell cycle and describe what happens during this.G1 - Growth S - DNA replicates G2 - More Growth M - The cell is actually dividingWhat are the steps of the M phase?PMAT P - Prophase M - Metaphase A - Anaphase T - TelophaseWhat happens during prophase?The chromosomes become visableWhat happens during metaphase?The chromosomes line up in the middle of the cellsWhat happens during anaphase?The chromosomes move away from each other to opposite sides of the cellWhat happens during telophase?Two new nuclear envelopes form and there are now 2 new cells.What is the organization of cells in a multicellular organism?Organelles Individual Cells Tissues Organs Organ SystemWhat is the summary equation for photosynthesis?6CO2 + 6H2O --sunlight--> C6H12O6 + 6O2 (6 Carbon dioxide + 6 Water --sunlight--> 1 glucose + 6 Oxygen)Why is photosynthesis vital for life on earth?1. It creates oxygen which we need to breathe 2. Food supply 3. it produces food for the plant so this cycle can continue to happenWhere does most of the energy on earth come from?The sunDraw/describe an ATP moleculeATP molecules have 3 phosphatesWhat is the equation for cellular respiration?C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP (opposite of photosynthesis) (glucose + 6 oxygen →6 Carbon dioxide + 6 water + ATP)How is aerobic respiration different that anaerobic respiration in the human body?1. Aerobic requires oxygen and anaerobic doesn't 2. Anaerobic creates lactic acid