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Usually it is not possible to penetrate inside a body cavity without cutting through protective tissues. However, sperm reach the egg via the vagina, uterus, and fallopian tubes (oviducts). Without crossing any epidermal barrier, the sperm can find itself inside which body cavity?
If you wash your skin and hair many times a day, you will soon have dry skin that cracks and bleeds because you have removed the _____ secreted by ______ that is necessary to keep the skin supple.
sebum; sebaceous glands
A __________ disease can be life-threatening, but usually occur quickly and are resolved quickly.
The structure and function of an organ is dependent upon the structure and function of the lower organizational levels such as tissues and cells.
When you look at someone, you are seeing primarily dead cells because cells at the surface of the epidermis are dead.
The part of the circulation involved with pumping blood to and from the lungs is the
Usually there is only one capillary bed between an artery and vein; an exception to this is the
hepatic portal system which runs from the capillary bed in the intestine to the capillary bed in the liver via a hepatic portal vein.
"Artery" and "vein" are defined by whether they leave or enter the heart. If they were defined by whether they carried oxygenated or deoxygenated blood, we would have to change the name(s) of
the pulmonary artery and vein; they would have to be switched.
___________ is (are) a condition in which there are irregular dilations of veins due to breakdown of valves.
Oxygen is transported in blood most efficiently by
forming a combination with a respiratory pigment, such as hemoglobin.
A person with normal blood volume and white cell count but low red cell count or low hemoglobin content may be suffering from
In the fetal heart, the lungs are deflated and the fetus receives oxygen from its mother across the placenta through the umbilical cord. There is an opening in the wall between the left and right side of the fetal heart. This should normally grow closed before birth. What symptoms would be expected if this heart wall opening remained open?
Deoxygenated blood would mix with oxygenated blood and systemic circulation would have too little oxygen to sustain healthy growth.
There is a condition where a baby is born with an opening [foramen ovale] in the septum or wall between the atria. What are reasonable consequences?
disability when deoxygenated blood is mixed and sent to the body and partly oxygenated blood is sent to the lungs
In order to decrease the effects of inflammation, you would take what type of medication?
Which is NOT part of a description of an antibody molecule?
contains a constant and a variable region on each chain
forms an X-shaped protein molecule
Edward Jenner promoted the use of cowpox infection, that was very similar to more dangerous smallpox, as a vaccination to provide patients immunity from future smallpox epidemics. This was a case of these subjects
developing active immunity.
When a person is bitten by a venomous snake, a donation of blood plasma from another person who has recently survived the same snake bite would provide some passive immunity.
A correct function of the human stomach is
storage of food and mixing with digestive fluids to allow chemical digestion.
Name the structure and organ that has microvilli, maltase, and absorbs nutrients.
villus, small intestine
In the processing of food through the digestive tract, what is the correct order?
bolus → chyme → feces
Simple sugars are labeled as being "empty calories" because they provide energy but not any other nutritional requirements.
A low saturated fat and low cholesterol diet is believed to lower blood cholesterol and LDL levels.
Which part of the respiratory system will have the least amount of cartilage and the thinnest walls?
It is extremely difficult to save a premature baby at 4 or 5 months of pregnancy because physicians say there is a "wall" that prevents survival much earlier than six months. What causes this "wall" past which they cannot push infant survival?
The premature alveoli do not develop surfactant to prevent their collapsing shut.
There is a certain amount of air that cannot be forced out of the lungs. This is called
The maximum volume of air that can be moved in plus the maximum volume of air that can be moved out during a single breath is the
If a lung is punctured in a car accident, that lobe fails to inflate even though there is no obstruction of the air passageway to that lobe. Why?
When the chest volume expands, air can now rush in through the puncture without filling the alveoli.
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