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25 terms

bio exam 4: (ch10)

STUDY
PLAY
molecular biology
study of heredity at a molecular level
bacteriophages
viruses that exclusively effect bacteria (bacteria-eaters)
griffith
_________ noticed that when he killed pathogenic bacteria, some living bacterial cells were converted to the disease-causing form
E. coli
biologists chase and hershey performed a set of experiments that showed DNA to be the genetic material of T2 : a virus that infects.....
nucleotides
long chains (polymers) of chemical units (monomers)
nucleic
DNA and RNA are _____ acids
polynucleotide
a nucleotide polymer (chain)
sugar-phosphate backbone
a repeating pattern of sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate
deoxy
DNA is _______ (or without an oxygen) compared to RNA
eurkaryotic cells
DNA exists in the nuclei of.....
uracil
the nitrogenous base of RNA
double helix
2 polynucleotide strands
watson and crick
constructed a wire model of a double helix that agreed with Rosalind Franklin's data AND what they knew about the chemistry of DNA
semiconservative model
watson and cricks model for DNA replication:

when a double helix replicates, each of the 2 daughter molecules will have 1 old strand (which was part of the parental molecule) and 1 new strand
DNA ligase
enzyme that links/ligates the pieces together into a single DNA strand
DNA polymerases
enzymes that link DNA nucleotides to a growing daughter strand
transcription & translation
2 main stages of the molecular "chain of command"
transcription
the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA
translation
the synthesis of PROTEIN under the direction of RNA
translation
the use of the information in RNA to make a polypeptide
transcription
the transfer of info from DNA to RNA
codons
triplet code, the genetic instructions for the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain are written in DNA and RNA as a series of non-overlapping three-base "words" called _______
triplet code
experiments have verified that the flow of info from gene to protein is based on a .....
genetic code
set of rules that relate codons in RNA to amino acids in proteins
nirenberg
first codon was deciphered by ..((((192)))))