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molecular biology

study of heredity at a molecular level


viruses that exclusively effect bacteria (bacteria-eaters)


_________ noticed that when he killed pathogenic bacteria, some living bacterial cells were converted to the disease-causing form

E. coli

biologists chase and hershey performed a set of experiments that showed DNA to be the genetic material of T2 : a virus that infects.....


long chains (polymers) of chemical units (monomers)


DNA and RNA are _____ acids


a nucleotide polymer (chain)

sugar-phosphate backbone

a repeating pattern of sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate


DNA is _______ (or without an oxygen) compared to RNA

eurkaryotic cells

DNA exists in the nuclei of.....


the nitrogenous base of RNA

double helix

2 polynucleotide strands

watson and crick

constructed a wire model of a double helix that agreed with Rosalind Franklin's data AND what they knew about the chemistry of DNA

semiconservative model

watson and cricks model for DNA replication:

when a double helix replicates, each of the 2 daughter molecules will have 1 old strand (which was part of the parental molecule) and 1 new strand

DNA ligase

enzyme that links/ligates the pieces together into a single DNA strand

DNA polymerases

enzymes that link DNA nucleotides to a growing daughter strand

transcription & translation

2 main stages of the molecular "chain of command"


the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA


the synthesis of PROTEIN under the direction of RNA


the use of the information in RNA to make a polypeptide


the transfer of info from DNA to RNA


triplet code, the genetic instructions for the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain are written in DNA and RNA as a series of non-overlapping three-base "words" called _______

triplet code

experiments have verified that the flow of info from gene to protein is based on a .....

genetic code

set of rules that relate codons in RNA to amino acids in proteins


first codon was deciphered by ..((((192)))))

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