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Physics I Vocabulary
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Gravity
Terms in this set (80)
Absolute Zero
The lower limit of physically possible temperature
Acceleration
The rate of change of velocity, as expressed as a vector
Adiabatic
Without releasing heat into or absorbing heat from the environment
Angular Acceleration
The rate of change of angular velocity
Angular Displacement
The angle between the initial and final angular positions
Angular Velocity
The rate of change of angular displacement
Avogadro's Number
The number of molecules in a mole, 6.022 x 10^23
Blackbody
A body that absorbs all radiation incident upon it, reaches a thermodynamic balance with this incident energy, and radiates it all back
Boltzmann's constant
A thermodynamic constant with a value of 1.38 x 10^-23 joules per kelvin; it quantifies the average amount of energy individual particles, at a given temperature, and is given by the gas constant divided by Avogadro's number.
Buoyancy
The upward acting force on a body immersed in a fluid that is equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
Centripetal Acceleration
The acceleration needed to keep an object in circular motion; centripetal acceleration is directed toward the center of the circle
Centripetal Force
The force, directed toward the center of the circle, that keeps an object going in circular motion
Conduction
The transmission of heat through a material via direct contact
Conservation of Energy
The law of physics that says the total energy of a closed system doesn't change
Convection
A mechanism for transporting heat through the motion of a heated gas or liquid
Conversion Factor
The number that relates two sets of units
Density
A quantity of mass divided by volume
Displacement
The change in an object's position in terms of distance and direction
Elastic Collision
A collision in which kinetic energy is conserved momentum is conserved, too, as it is in any collision)
Emissivity
A property of a substance showing how well it radiates
energy
the availability of a system to do work
FPS System
the system of measurement that sues feet, pounds, and seconds
Frequency
The number of cycles of a periodic occurance per unit of time
friction
the force between two surfaces that always acts to oppose any relative movement between them
heat
the flow of thermal energy
heat capacity
the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one unit of mass of substance by 1 degree
hertz
the MKS unit of measurement of frequency-one cycle per second
impulse
the product of the amount of force on an object and the time during which the force is applied
inelastic collision
a collision in which kinetic energy isn't conserved (though momentum is conserved, as it is in any collision)
inertia
the tendency of masses to resit changes in their motion
isobaric
at constant pressure
isochoric
at constant volume
isothermal
at constant temperature
joule
the MKS unit of energy-one newton-meter
kelvin
the MKS unit of temperature, equal in size to a degree Celsius; the Kelvin scale starts at absolute zero
kilogram
the MKS unit of mass
kinematics
the branch of mechanics concerned with motion without reference to force or mass
kinetic energy
the energy of an object due to its motion
kinetic friction
friction that resists the motion of an object that's already moving
katent heat
the heat per kilogram needed to cause a change in phase in a substance
law of conservation of momentum
a law stating that the momentum of a system doesn't change unless influenced by an external force
linear momentum
the product of an object;s ass times its velocity; momentum is a vector
magnitude
the size, amount, or length associated with a vector (vectors are made up of a direction and a magnitude)
mass
the quantitative measure of the property that makes matter resist being accelerated
mechanics
the are of physics that deals with the motions of bodies and the forces imposed upon them
MKS system
the measurement system that uses meters, kilograms, and seconds
mole
a quantity of substance that's defined to have a number of atoms (or molecules if the substance is molecular) equal to Avogardro's number
moment of inertia
the property if matter that makes it resist rational acceleration
newton
the MKS unit of force; the amount of force that would accelerate a mass of 1 kilogram with an acceleration of 1 meter per second squared
normal force
the force a surface applies to an object, in a direction perpendicular to that surface
oscillate
move or swing side to side regularly
pascal
the MKS unit of pressure, equal to 1 newton per meter squared
period
the time it takes for one complete cycle of a repeating event
phase (of matter)
one of four notably distinct states of matter; solid (the molecules are relatively fixed in place), liquid (the molecules are free to flow but are bound relatively close to each other), gas (the molecules are free to flow and are far apart from each other relative to their size), and plasma (the atoms have been broken down to form a gas of subatomic particles)
potential energy
the energt an object has because of its internal configuration or its position when a force is acting on it
power
the rate at which work is done by a system
pressure
force applied to a surface divided by the surface area over which the force acts
radians
the MKS unit of angle; 2pi radians are in a circle; one radian is the angle subtended by an arc that has a length equal to the radius of the cicle
radiation
a physical mechanism that transports heat and energy as electrmagnetic waves
resultant
a vector sum
rotation inertia
related to moment of inertia
scalar
a quantity that has magnitude but not direction (in contrast to a vector which has both)
significant digits or significant figures
the number of digit that are of known value, according to the precision of the measurement and any subsequent calculation
simple harmonic notion
repetitive motion in which the restoring force is proportional to the displacement
specific gravity
the density of a substance relative to a reference substance
specific heat capacity
a material's heat capacity per kilogram
standard pressure
one atmosphere, or 1.01 x 10 to the fifth power pascals
standard temperature
a temperature of 0 degrees Celsius
static friction
friction on a stationary object
streamline
lines in a fluid flow that are parallel to the velocity of the fluid at every point
temperature
a measure of molecular movement in a substance; when two objects are in thermal contact yet no heat flows between them, then they are defined to be at the same temperature
thermal cnductivity
a property of a substance showing how well or how poorly heat moves through it
thermal expansion
the increase in length or volume of a material as it gets hotter
thermodynamics
the section of physics covering heat and matter
torque
the product of a force around a turning point and the force's perpendicular distance to that turning point
vector
a mathematical construct that has both a magnitude and a direction
velocity
the time rate of change of an object's position, expressed as a vector whose magnitude is speed
viscosity
the "thickness" of a fluid; the rate at which the velocity changes across a fluid flow increases with viscosity
weight
the force exerted on a mass by a gravitation field
work
force multiplied by the displacement over which the force acts and the cosine of the angle between them; force is equal to the amount of energy transferred by a force
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