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63 terms

Psychology Final

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Psychodynamic therapies
Attempt to undercover repressed childhood experiences that are thought to explain a client's current difficulties.
These techniques, which use free association, dream analysis, & transference, are associated with the first such therapy - Freud's psychoanalysis - and are still used by some psychodynamic therapists today
Brief psychodynamic therapy
May required only 1 or 2 visits per week for as few as 12 to 20 weeks.
Found to be as effective as other psychotherapies.
Comparable to other forms of psychotherapy in terms of successful outcomes
Most effective with clients who do not have multiple psychological disorders, who lack significant social relationship problems, & who believe that the therapy will be effective
Somatoform disorders
Involve physical symptoms that are due to psychological causes rather than any known medical condition
Psychological disorders
Mental processes and/or behavior patterns that cause emotional distress and/or substantial impairment in functioning
Social phobia
People are intensely afraid of any social or performance situation in which they might embarrass or humiliate themselves in front of others by shaking, blushing, sweating, or in some other way appearing clumsy, foolish, or incompetent
Agoraphobia
People with an intense fear of being in a situation form which immediate escape is not possible or in which help would not be available if she or he should become overwhelmed by anxiety or experience
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Anxiety disorder in which a person suffers from recurrent obsessions or compulsions, or both.
Genetic component rather than environmental
Obsessions
Persistent, involuntary thoughts, images, or impulses that invade consciousness & cause a person great distress
Compulsion
Persistent, irresistible, irrational urge to perform an act or ritual repeatedly
Unbearable stress
Trigger of dissociative personality disorder
Dissociative personality disorder
People lose the ability to consciously integrate their identities.
Consciousness becomes dissociated form their identity or their memories of important personal events or both.
They could have 10 or more personalities
You won't see it in childhood
They loose track of time while changing personality
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
Hallucinations
Delusions
Delusions of grandeur
Delusions of persecution
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia
Loss of or deficiency in thoughts & behaviors that are characteristic of normal functioning
Social withdrawal
Apathy
Loss of motivation
Lack of goal-directed activity
Very limited speech
Slowed movements
Poor hygiene & grooming
Poor problem-solving abilities
Distorted sense of time
Serotonin
Main neurotransmitter of OCD
Hallucinations
Imaginary sensations
Delusions
False beliefs not generally shared by others in the culture
Delusions of grandeur
People may believe they are a famous person or a powerful or important person who possesses some great knowledge, ability, or authority
Delusions of persecution
People have a false notion that some person or agency is trying to harass, cheat, spy on, conspire against, injure, kill, or in some other way harm them
Bipolar Disorder
Condition in which individuals exhibit two radically different moods - extreme highs of manic episodes (or mania) & the extreme lows of major depression - usually with relatively normal periods in between
Person centered therapy
Therapy where the person is the expert of their own condition.
Therapist doesn't say much if anything at all.
Resistants
May take the form of halting speech during free association, "forgetting" appointments with the analyst, or arriving late
Transference
The patient reacts to the analyst with the same feelings that were present in another significant relationship - usually with the mother or father
Panic attack symptoms
Palpitations of the heart
Tingling in the hands or feet
Shortness of breath
Sweating
Anxiety disorder
Psychological disorders characterized by frequent fearful thoughts about what might happen in the future
Dissociative amnesia
Complete or partial loss of the ability to recall personal information or identify past experiences that cannot be attributed to ordinary forgetfulness or substance use
Dissociative fague
Disorder in which one has a complete loss of memory of one's entire identity, travels from home, & may assume a new identity
Dissociative identity disorder
Two or more distinct, unique personalities exist in the same individual, & there is severe memory disruption concerning personal information about the other personalities
Paranoid schizophrenia
Patients suffer from delusions of grandeur or persecution
Disorganized schizophrenia
Most serious type of schizophrenia
Tends to occur at an earlier age than other types
Marked by extreme social withdrawal, hallucinations, delusions, silliness, inappropriate laughter, grimaces, grotesque mannerisms, & other bizarre behaviors.
Catatonic schizophrenia
Patients display complete stillness & stupor or great excitement & agitation or they alternate rapidly between the two.
They become frozen in a strange posture or position & remain there for hours without moving
Undifferentiated schizophrenia
General term used when schizophrenia symptoms either do not conform to the criteria of any one type of schizophrenia or conform to more than one type
Personality disorder
A long-standing, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of behaving & relating to others, which usually begins early in childhood or adolescence.
Symptoms of paranoid personality disorder
Cluster A
Individual is highly suspicious, untrusting, guarded, hypersensitive, easily slighted, lacking in motion
Holds grudges
Symptoms of schizoid personality disorder
Cluster A
Individual isolates self from others
Appears unable to form emotional attachments
Behavior may resemble that of autistic children
Symptoms of schizotypal personality disorder
Cluster A
Individual dresses in extremely unusual ways
Lacks social skills
May have odd ideas resembling the delusions of schizophrenia
Symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder
Cluster B
Individual has exaggerated sense of self-importance & entitlement
Self-centered, arrogant, demanding, exploitive, envious
Craves admiration & attention
Lacks empathy
Symptoms of histrionic personality disorder
Cluster B
Individual seeks attention & approval
Overly dramatic
Self-centered, shallow, demanding, manipulative, easily bored, suggestible, craves excitement
Often is attractive & sexually seductive
Symptoms of borderline personality disorder
Cluster B
Individual is unstable in mood, behavior, self-image, & social relationships
Has intense fear of abandonment
Exhibits impulsive & reckless behavior & inappropriate anger
Makes suicidal gestures & performs self mutilating acts
Symptoms of antisocial personality disorder
Cluster B
Individual disregards rights & feelings of others
Manipulative, impulsive, selfish, aggressive, irresponsible, reckless, & willing to break the law, lie, cheat, & exploit others for personal gain, without remorse
Fails to hold jobs
Symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
Cluster C
Individual is concerned with doing things the "right" way & is generally a perfectionist
Relationships are emotionally shallow
Symptoms of avoidant personality disorder
Cluster C
Individual fears criticism & rejection
Avoids social situations in order to prevent being judged by others
Symptoms of dependent personality disorder
Cluster C
Person overly dependent on others for advice & approval; may cling to lovers & friends, fearing abandonment
DSM-IV
Manual providing a diagnostic system for describing & classifying psychological disorders
Most current edition was made in 2000
Contains descriptions about 300 specific psychological disorders & lists criteria that must be met in order to make a particular diagnosis
Types of anxiety disorders
Panic attacks
Agoraphobia
OCD
Approaches to treat mood disorders
Talk with family & friends
Music
Prayer or meditation
Help others
Take a bath or shower
Play with a pet
Gestalt therapy
Fritz Perls
Emphasizes the importance of clients' fully experiencing, the present moment, their feelings, thoughts, & actions & then taking responsibility for them
Cognitive therapies
Based on the cognitive perspective
Assume maladaptive behavior that can result from irrational thoughts, beliefs, ideas, which the therapist tries to change
Used in therapy
Ideal treatment in therapy
Family therapy is the best option
Family therapy
Family members enter therapy as a group & the therapist attempts to help them reach agreement on certain changes that will help heal the family unit, improve communication problems, & create more understanding & harmony within the group
Group therapy
Several clients (7-10) meet regularly with one or more therapists to resolve personal problems
Suicide statistics
30,000-31,000 suicides are reported annually in the USA
Suicide rate among Asian Americans who are over the age of 65, at 17 per 100,000 is half that of White American males
White males aged 85+ have the highest recorded suicide rate with more than 51 suicides for every 100,000 people in that age group, about 5 times the average national suicide rate of 11 per 100,000
Therapy for depression
Antidepressant drugs act as mood elevators for people who are severely depressed & are also helpful in the treatment of certain anxiety disorders
How to determine abnormal behavior
1. Is the behavior considered strange within the person's own culture?
2. Does the behavior cause personal distress?
3. Is the behavior maladaptive?
4. Is the person a danger to self or others?
5. Is the person legally responsible for his/her acts?
Biological perspective
Views abnormal behavior as arising from a physical cause, such as genetic inheritance, biochemical abnormalities or imbalances, structural abnormalities within the brain, and/or infection
Biopsychosocial perspective
Agrees that the physical (biological) causes are of central importance but also recognizes the influence of psychological & social factors
Psychodynamic perspective
Maintains that psychological disorders stem from early childhood experiences & unresolved, unconscious conflicts, usually of a sexual or aggressive nature
Learning perspective
Psychological disorders are thought to be learned & sustained in the same way as any other behavior
Cognitive perspective
Suggests that faulty thinking or distorted perceptions can contribute to some types of psychological disorders
Specific phobia
Marked fear of a specific object or situation.
This general label is applied to any phobia other than agoraphobia & social phobia.
Major depressive disorder
People feel an overwhelming sadness, despair, & hopelessness, and they usually lose their ability to experience pleasure
Interpersonal therapy (IPT)
Brief psychodynamic therapy that has proven very effective in the treatment of depression
Can be carried out with individual clients or with groups
Designed specifically to help clients understand & cope with 4 types of interpersonal problems commonly associated with major depression
Humanistic therapies
Psychotherapies that assume that people have the ability & freedom to lead rational lives & make rational choices
Behavior therapy
Treatment approach consistent with the learning perspective on psychological disorders - that abnormal behavior is learned