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32 terms

Chemical Building Blocks Chapter 2 Science Vocabulary

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Plasma
a gas like state of matter consisting of a mixture of free electrons and atoms that are stripped of there electrons
Nuclear fusion
the process in which two atomic nuclei combine to form a larger nucleus forming a heavier element and releasing a huge amounts of energy
Nebula
a cloudlike region of gases left over in the remains of a shrinking sunsized star
Supernova
an explosion of a massive star
Nonmetal
an element that lacks most properties of a metal
Diatomic molecule
a molecule consisting of two atoms
Halogen
an element found in Group 17 of the periodic table
Noble gas
an element found in Group 18 of the periodic table
Metalloid
an element that has some characteristics of both metals and nonmetals
Semiconductor
a substance that can conduct electricity under some conditions
Metal
a class of elements characterized by physical properties that include shininess, malleability, ductility and conductivity
Malleable
a term used to describe material that can be pounded into shapes
Ductile
a term used to describe a material that can be pulled out into a long wire
Conductive
the ability of an object to transfer heat or electricity to another object
Reactivity
the ease and speed with which an element combines or reacts with other elements and compounds
Corrosion
the gradual wearing away of metal elements due to a chemical reaction
Alkaline earth metal
an element in group 2 of the periodic table
Transition metal
one of the elements on group 3 through 12 of the periodic table
Alloy
a mixture of two or more elements, one of which is metal
Particle accelerator
a machine that moves atomic nuclei at higher and higher speeds until they crash into one another sometimes forming heavier elements
Atomic mass
the average mass of all the isotope of an element
Periodic table
a chart of the elements showing the repeating pattern of their properties
Chemical symbol
a one or two letter representation of an element
Period
a horizontal row of elements on the periodic table
Group
elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table; also called family
Nucleus
the central core of an atom containing protons and usually neutrons
Proton
a small positively charged particle in the nucleus of the atom
Neutron
a small particle in the nucleus of the atom with no electrical charge
Electron
a tiny negatively charged particle the moves around the nucleus of an atom
Atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus on an atom
Isotope
an atom with the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons from other atoms of the same element
Mass number
the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom