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Terms as Defined by the Princeton Review
Terms in this set (28)
Hobbes' Political Views
Believed that if humans were left to their own devices, chaos and violence would ensue and human life would be "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." Wanted to give total power to an absolute monarch
Hobbes' famous work expressing his belief that violence and chaos would ensue if humans were left to their own devices.
John Locke's Political Views
concerned with the protection of life. Believed that life, liberty, and property were natural rights granted by God. Said it was the duty of all governments to respect and protect these rights.
"Second Treatise on Civil Government"
John Locke's book about how liberty and property need to be respected
Charles de Montesquieu's Political Views
Advocated for the separation of powers into three branches of government, and for checks and balances
"De l'Esprit des Lois" - The Spirit of the Laws
Charles de Montesquieu's book in which he advocated for the separation of powers of the government.
Rousseau's Political Views
Believed that the only good government was one that was freely formed with the consent of the people.
The consent of the people to form a government
Proponent of individual freedom, defender of free speech.
When were the Articles of Confederation ratified?
Accomplishments of the government under the Articles
1. Established methods by which new states would enter the union.
2. Negotiated the treaty that ended the Revolutionary War.
3. Set the precedent of federalism.
Result of Articles of Confederation by 1787
Decline of trade between states, decline in value of money, potential threats from foreign enemies were growing, as well as threats of disorder from groups within the country.
What couldn't the federal government do under the Articles?
- Raise an army
- Collect taxes
- Pay off Revolutionary War debt
- interpret law (no Supreme Court)
- enforce law
- have a national currency
- have control over interstate taxes and commerce
Who convinced the delegates of the Constitutional Convention that the rewrite of the Constitution was necessary?
Framers of the Constitution met in Philadelphia in 1787. They realized that a stronger central government was necessary.
What is the controversy over the influences of the Framers of the Constitution?
Some believe that they were an elitist conspiracy to protect the wealthy, while others believe that they were political pragmatists who knew they could protect everyone's rights, including their own.
How did the Framers correct the lack of authority to enforce laws?
Through installing an executive authority (the president)
Who passes laws?
What did the Framers install to settle disputes between the Congress and the president, as well as states and the federal government?
The Supreme Court
Necessary and Proper Clause (Elastic Clause)
Allows the Congress to "make all laws that appear necessary and proper" to implement in its delegated powers.
Executive orders, which have the same effect as law, bypass Congress in policy making
The Supreme Court can overturn laws passed by the legislature
Custom and Usage
Unwritten customs may be as strong as written law developed in our governmental system.
What does the Constitution oblige the federal government to guarantee the states?
Protection against foreign invasion and domestic rebellion
What does the Federal Government NOT have the Power to do?
- Suspend the "write of habeas corpus," except in times of national crisis
- pass ex post facto (retroactive) laws or issuance of bills of attainder
- Impose Export taxes
- Use money from the treasury without passage and approval of an appropriations bill
- Grants titles of nobility
What does the State Government NOT have the Power to do?
- Enter into treaties with foreign countries
- Declare war
- Maintain a standing army
- Print money
- Pass ex post facto
- Grant titles of nobility
- Impose of import or export duties
How do States' Rightists define federalism?
The relationship between the state and federal government in which the states retain most of the power.
How do Nationalists define federalism?
The relationship between the state and federal government in which the federal government retains most of the power.
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