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FSU Professor Lind Final exam cumlative AST1002

The Solar day is longer than the sidereal day.

True. Solar day is 24hours and a sidereal day takes 3.9 more minutes.

If Earth rotated half as fast as it currently does, but its motion around the Sun stayed in same then...

The night would be twice as long

What causes the Earth's seasons?

23.5 degree tilt on Earth's rotational axis

Sidereal Day

time it takes the earth to complete one rotation as measured by the stars

Solar Day

time it takes the sun to go from noon one day to noon the next.

Retrograde motion

Earth travels faster than the other outer planets to Earth's periodically overtakes the other planets making it appear as though the other planets stop and move backwards.

A major flaw in Copernicus's model was that it still had

circular orbits

If Earth's orbit around the Sun were twice as large as it is now, the orbit would take

more than two times to traverse

One light-year

distance that light travels in one year

Galileo's observation is significant because Jupiter's satellites show that...

the observation showed that bodies can orbit an object other than Earth

Modern telescopes use mirrors rather than lenses because

large lenses are more difficult to make, large lenses can be very heavy, mirrors can be computer controlled to improve resolution & light passing through lenses can be absorbed or scattered.

The MAIN reason professional observatories are built on the highest mountain tops is...

reduce atmospheric blurring

The MAIN reason that most professional research telescopes are reflectors it that...

mirrors produce sharper images that lenses do since there is no chromatic aberration

Which hero of the Renaissance postulated three "laws" of planetary motion?


Kepler's 1st law of planetary motion

1) planets orbit the Sun
2) orbits are elliptical in shape
3) orbits are noncircular
4) applies to all orbiting objects

Kepler's 2nd law

a planet moves faster when closer to its star

Copernican Revolution

choose a heliocentric view over a geocentric view


1) observed the moons of Jupiter
2) observed Venus has phases

Occam's Razor

the simplest theory, is always the right answer

Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy)

constructed the best geocentric model-each planet orbits Earth, and at the same time moves in circles about that orbit


farthest point from the sun


closest point from the Sun

Kepler's 3rd Law

The square of a planet's orbital period (Earth years) is proportional to the cube of its semimajor axis (AU)

Newton's First Law of Motion

An object at rest remains at rest and a moving object continues to move forever in a straight line with constant speed, uunless some external force changes their state of motion

Newton's 2nd Law

Acceleration of an object os directly proportional to the net applied force and inversely proportional to the object's mass

Newton's 3rd Law of Motion

To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

Let's say Earth has the same mass, but is half the radius. How does the force of gravity change?

Half the radius then, for the same mass means four times the gravity. The gravitational force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance

You throw a baseball to someone; before the ball is caught, it is temporarily in orbit around Earth's center?


The leading theory of solar system formation is...

The planets formed from the same flattened, swirling gas cloud that formed the Sun.

What is the number of confirmed planets beyond our solar system?

more than 300

Terrestrial planets (earth-like)

Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars

Most asteroids are found

between Mars and Jupiter

The planet with the largest diameter in our solar system is


The overall shape of the orbits of most the planets

is slightly elliptical, but nearly circular

Sunlight absorbed by Earth's surface is re-emitted in the form of

infrared raditation

If Earth has no moon, then tides would

occur with the same frequency, but would not be as strong. The Sun also affects the tide but lesser than the moon.

The most likely theory of the formation of the moon is...

formed from a collision of Earth with a Mars-sized object

The region around Earth where the magnetic field traps charged particles is the...

Van allen radiation belts

Which of these gases is least abundant in our atmosphere?


Terrestrial planets have ______ compared to the jovian planets which has several ______

one or no moon, several/many moons

The Jovian planets have

a large number of moons

Jovian planets share

1) many moons
2) large magnetic fields
3) lots of hydrogen &helium gas
4) differential rotation
5) have much thicker

Mercury's solar day is longer than its solar year


Feature of Venus?

that the temperature on the surface does not change significantly between day and night

Jupiter's bright zones are cloud streams made of ___________ ice crystals.


Venus's surface is permanently obscured by clouds. So it has been mostly studied by...

orbiting satellits using radar

Jupiter has a large magnetosphere and strong magnetic field

This is due to the liquid metallic core

The vastly different atmospheric character of Mars is likely due to...

a reverse greenhouse effect

The most famous and long lasting storm in the solar system is Jupiter's

Red Spot

Jupiter's atmosphere is mostly


What effect does the greenhouse effect have on the surface environment of Venus?

to raise the surface temperature by hundreds of degrees

From Earth

Venus is brighter then Jupiter

A feature of Mars which distinguishes it from the other planets is

the dust storms

Why did the Soviet spacecraft survive for only a few minutes on the Venusian surface?

The conditions of extreme pressure, corrosive atmosphere, and high temperatures severely damage it.

The most likely explanation for the retrograde rotation of Venus is...

impact of a massive object on it early in its history

Both Jupiter and Saturn

1) emit more energy than they absorb from the Sun
2) have liquid metallic hydrogen in their interiors
3) rotate very rapidly than the terestial planets
4) have rings

The seasons on Uranus

Its strange tilt produces extreme seasonal variations

Saturn is the

least dense of the planets, and could float on water

Neptune has the Great _____ spot


Saturn's rings exist because

they lie within the planet's Roche limit

Triton's orbit is unusual because

it is retrograde

Io's surface appears very smooth bc...

is continuously by volcanic activity

The Galilean moons of Jupiter are sometimes described as a miniature inner solar system bc...

the moon's densities decreases with increasing distance from Jupiter

What future awaits Triton, the largest satellite of Neptune?

tidal breakup as it spirals closer to Neptune

What is the Dynamo theory?

The magnetic field of Earth is caused by the spinning electrically conductive metal core of the planet

Uranus and Neptune magnetic fields

are offset from the planet's centers

The formaton of Jupiter and its moons may have mimicked on

a small scale the formation of the Sun and the interior planets

Jupiter's moon's unique qualities.

Titan= has nitrogen atmosphere like earth's early atmosphere
Io= has volcanic activity
Europa= appear to have water
Triton= completely doomed, within roche limit of Neptune

Reading Music Is Very Unsatisfying for Xylophones and Glockenspiels

Radio, Microwave, Infrared, Visible, Ultraviolet, X-Ray and Gammaray

What is the most abundant element in the Sun?


Compared with Earth's diameter, the Sun's diameter is about...

100 times larger

What is the primary source of the Sun's energy?

fusion of light nuclei to make heavier ones

The density of the Sun is most similar to that of??


The proton-proton cycle involves what kind of fusion process?

hydrogen into helium

How long does it take for a photon to escape from the solar core?

about a million years

how much mass will the sun lose to space during its lifetime, through the solar wind?

a few thousandths of its total mass

What is a neutrino

an elusive, subatomic particle having little mass, difficult to detect.

To determine the radius of a star, you must know what?

luminosity and temperature

The mass of a star may be determined

by studying its orbit around a binary companion

how hot is the core of the sun?


What is luminosity?

the amount of radiation (energy) leaving a star per unit of time.

What's a Giant?

starts with radii between 10-100 times that of our sun

What's a dwarf?

anything smaller in radius than our sun

What is the single most important characteristic determining the course of a star's evolution?


Why is dust important to solar system formation?

1) it radiated in the infr-red which helps to cool the cloud down
2) it provides a platform on which additional material can "climp" up

The Earth has a

solid, dense, nickle-iron core

The temperature at the center of Earth is approx the

same as the surface of the sun

Seismic waves are how we learned about the

Earth's structure

Concerning the Earth's greenhouse effects...

The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has been increasing since the start of the industrial revolution

Which of these is the smallest of the terrestrial world?


Mercury has the largest eccentricity of the

Terrestial worlds

Mercury has the

largest angle to the plane of the rest of the solar system

The atmosphere of Mars..

mostly nitrogen like Venus and much less dense than Earth's

What is absolute zero?

The temperature at which all thermal motion stops

Magnitude for the temperature for the center of the sun


The Radiation zone is...

A region of the sun where the material is mainly ionized.
A region where photons can travel through relatively freely

As few as two wavelength measurements can be used to estimate the temperature of a star.


What is plotted on the HR diagram?

Luminosity and Temperature

As the distance of an object increases the parallax decreases


Red giants

are larger and cooler than our sun

What is the ultimate stage of our star

to become a black dwarf

Galaxies merging causes

star formation and destruction of spiral arms

why do typw 1 supernovae provide signposts for large distances?

they all have the same absolute luminosities

Hubble Law

relates galatic recession velocity to the distance to the galaxy in question

What is driving the expansion of the universe?

Dark energy

Nuclear fusion in the core of a massive star cannot create elements much heavier than iron.

This is true.

The Sun will get brighter as it begins to run ot of hydrogen (fuel) in its core

it begins to run ot of hydrogen (fuel) in its core

White dwarf is supported by the pressure of

tightly packed- electrons

All things

included light are attracted by gravity

What is general relativity?

The warping of space, or curving by matter.

The lighthouse model explains how...

a rotating neutron star generates an observable beam of light

most pulsars are observed as radio sources


What is the event horizon of a black hole?

"surface" from inside of which nothing can escape

As a spaceship's velocity gets closer to the speed of light

its length will decrease and its clock will run more slowly

Due to the density and collisions among galaxies, ___________ are rare in the centers of clusters.


Where is dark matter located?

dark matter appears to be concentrated in spherical haloes around galaxies but extends far beyond the visible matter

the diamete of the Milky Way is


The mood has many more craters than the Earth because

The moon has no atmosphere, no liquid water on its surface, Earth Does have water on its surface.

Why does one face of our moon always point toward Earth?

Because tidal locking causes the rotation and revolution periods to be equal

One would expect that the densest part of the Earth is

The core

The magnetic field of Jupiter is probably due to

Electric currents generated by Jupiter's fast rotation and convection within liquid metallic hydrogen interior.

In order of size from largest to smallest, which is correct?

Uranus, the earth, Mars, mercury.

Which of these best separates the properties of Mercury and the Moon from the other terrestrial worlds?

They are too small to retain any substantial atmosphere

Olympus Mons, volcanic mountain is Pluto, is 700 Km across, what would its angular diameter be as seen from Earth based telescopes?

nearest 2.0 arcsecs.

The primary cause of the high temperature on the surface of Venus is

trapping of infrared solar energy by the thick clouds and CO2 in its atmosphere.

Hydrogen escaped from Earth's atmosphere because

Hydrogen is the lightest fastest atom in atmosphere's

The number of confirmed planets detected beyong our solar system is

more than 400.

How long would it take the control signals for the Cassini probe in orbit around Saturn, sent by radio beam at the speed of light to travel from mission control on the Earth to the Satellite when the two planets are at closest approach?

between 10-100 minutes. (distance/velocity)

Whih of the following statements about atmospheres in the solar system is false?

Among all the moons of the solar system, Titan's is exceptional because it is so thin and tenuous.

One property of Jupiter's and Earth's interiors which makes them similar is

both are mostly liquid and both conduct electric currents.

Of the Galilean moons of Jupiter, Callisto has a surface that is the most heavily cratered. This fact implies that, compared to the others, Callisto has the:

oldest, most unchanged surface.

Io appears to be more active geologically than the other Galilean satellites of Jupiter. This activity appears to arise from

strong heating of Io due to tidal forces

Which of the following statements comparing the terrestrial and Jovian planets is false?

Jovian planetary interiors are high density, while terrestrial planets are low density

So far, only one planet has not been visited and studied by space probes from Earth. This planet is


Neptune's average distance from the sun is 30.06 AU. According to Keplers 3rd law, how long will it take Neptune to make one compete orbit around the sun?

approx. 164.8 years. (p^2=a^3)

Water on the Earth was

transported here by comets

What is the Roche limit?

the distance at which a moon held together by the tensile strength of rocks will be broken apart by tidal forces from the planet.

The first planet searched for and then discovered because of a mathematical prediction based on its gravitational influence was the planet


Which of the following statements about comets is false?

The orbits of most comets which we see in the inner solar system are elongated ellipses. comet tails have been measured to be over 2AU long. Comets tails are much brighter when the comet is near the Sun. The nucleus of a comet is thought to be similar in composition to a dirty snowball.

One explanation of why planets near the Sun have so much rock and Iron compared to the outer planets is that

The sun's heat made it difficult for other more volatile substances such as ices and gases to condense near it.

Astronomers believe that many comets, especially those with tilted orbits, originate

from the Oort cloud, which is a very large distance from the Sun

Comets and asteroids are

the leftovers of the formation of the planets

Most of the following pieces of information about pluto are known only either because of the presence of its moon Charon or because of occuultation observations. Which piece of information is known so far almost entirely from observations of a series of mutual eclipses between pluto and charon that took place around 1988?

the presence and shading of surface features on Pluto

As a comet leaves the vicinity of the Sun, its ion tail points from the comet's nucleus

directly away from the sun

The streak of light produced in the sky by the vaporization of a chunk of matter


Uranus was discovered about the same time as

the US. Declaration of Independence

If the Earth had no moon, the the tides would

occur with the same frequency, but would not be quite as strong.

Venus's surface is permanently obscured by clouds. As a result, the surface has been studied by

orbiting satellites using radar.

The solar system object most similar to Pluto is


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