Parasitic Bacteria; in some cases symbiotic, not parasitic. It causes four different phenotypes:
Male killing: males are killed during larval development, which increase the rate of born females.
Feminization: infected males develop as females or infertile pseudo-females.
Parthenogenesis: reproduction of infected females without males. Some scientists have suggested that parthenogenesis may always be attributable to the effects of Wolbachia. An example of a parthenogenic species is the Trichogramma wasp, which has evolved to procreate without males with the help of Wolbachia. Males are rare in this tiny species of insect, possibly because many have been killed by that very same strain of Wolbachia.
Cytoplasmic incompatibility: the inability of Wolbachia-infected males to successfully reproduce with uninfected females or females infected with another Wolbachia strain. It is aerobic. NOTE: It has been linked to viral resistance in Drosophila melanogaster and mosquito species. Flies infected with the bacteria are more resistant to RNA viruses such as Drosophila C Virus, Nora Virus, Flock House virus, cricket paralysis virus, Chikungunya virus, and West Nile Virus.