Baron-Cohen (Eyes Test)
Eyes without a face
Terms in this set (30)
Identify two features of individuals who are labeled as being on the autism spectrum. 
-Two features of individuals who are labeled as being in the autism spectrum are that they tended to score higher than normal people and they had trouble making eye contact with other people.
Identify a problem with the original 1997 eyes test and how this problem was corrected in the revised 2001 test. 
-A problem with the original 1997 eyes test was that some items were linked to gaze direction (noticing and ignoring) as a solution those items were eliminated.
5. In the study by Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste and Plumb (eyes test) a group of participants in the study with Asperger's syndrome or high functioning autism were compared to a group of general population controls and students.
The performance of the control group on the Eyes Test produced a normal distribution. What is meant by a 'normal distribution'? 
-'Normal distribution' means a "theoretical frequency distribution represented by a normal curve." In other words, the results from the normal population (the mean of their results).
How did the average results of the Asperger's syndrome or high functioning autism group differ from the controls? 
-The results or the Asperger's syndrome of high functioning autism group differed from the controls by the people with high functioning autism had less eye contact and scored higher on the autistic spectrum.
Revising the eyes test for___
diagnosing high functioning autism
What were some psychometric problems for the original eyes test?
too few choices( increased to four)
the bad choices were obvious( more complex emotions)
increased the number of eyes( 36)
evened out male/female eyes
Why did they change the original test?
to make sure it was valid: testing what they wanted to test for
There were 3 groups....
HFA, Control group, Matched "Normal" group" on IQ
HFA group had much lower scores on the eyes test than the control gorup or matched groups
What is the theory of mind
look it up...I dont know it!
4. In the Baron-Cohen study on the development of the eyes test for determining autism, Baron-Cohen developed a revised test of his original test. (a) Describe the 'eyes test'. 
-The eyes test can be described as follows: This test uses pictures of only the eyes of people to recognize emotions. This test is supposed to discriminate persons with Asperger Syndrome.
(b) Why did Baron-Cohen feel it was necessary to match the 15 autistic participants with 14 normal participants based on IQ? 
- The 14 normal participants were the control group to base the autistic IQ's on. Without this, there would be no measure of what is considered 'normal'.
What is the theory of mind?
Theory of Mind: level of develoment certain species reach when they are able to undersand that other creatures have their own independent mind.
Matched pairs design
Experimental Validity: measures an autistic trait, not a normal one
High Control over extranneous variables
reliable and replicable\
It has low ecological validity because there are only static (non-moving) pictures of just eyes. It is also an abnormal thing for people to do.
The 1997 test data was flawed....how?
1997 the data collection was flawed, there were restricted choices, a ceiling effect, the emotion choices were far too broad, too generic for example happy, sad, angry etc some items were inked to gazing. there were more male faces than female
In 2001 they fixed the problems with what and how?
2001 they fixed the problems with data collection for the revised study, they increased the number of items in the test and increased the number of responses offered. used more complex emotions, involving attribution of intention, eliminated the emotions linked to gazing. 18 male 18 female
How was the data collected? The procedure...
how was data collected-they were given tests containing a bunch of pictures and a selection of words below it to describe which emotion it is. They simply had to pick which one was the best fit.
It is an experiment, they matched participants with similar IQ's
Is social understanding/cognition related to intelligence (IQ)?
Briefly describe the theory of mind and how it relates to children with autism.
Theory of mind: the level of development certain species rech when they are able to understand that other creatures have their own independent mind.
-children who have autism cannot analyze the situation from another persons point of view
Baron-cohen discussed various problems with the 1997 test and how he corrected them. Please list them.
-forced choice:range is too narrow (answer: increase the number of items on the test)
-Narrow range cannot discriminate the broader phenotype vs. condition itself
-Ceiling Effects: consistently high scores bias results(lose the ability to detect differences).
Please note that when giving the test to subjects, they matched the AS/HFA participants with normal participants who matched on IQ. What is this called?
Method: Matched Pairs Design
What is the conclusion about how the 2001 test relates to the 1997 test?
2001 test is more sensitive-> detects individual differences better
Was IQ linked to scores on the eyes test? Was AQ (autism quotient) linked to scores on the test?
Weaknesses of the study?
1. ecological validity: (static pictures, eyes only, strange task)
1. Experimental Validity: measures an autistic trait and not a normal one
2. question criteria
3. high control over extraneous variables
5. replicable: pencil and paper task
Validity is when a study measures what it is supposed to. What evidence from the study shows that this test is valid for measuring AS/HFA?
it detects individual differences better/has more data