The extracellular fluid (ECF) consists of the
All of the above: interstitial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, plasma and lymph
To reduce brain swelling by pulling water out of brain cells, a substance can be injected intravenously to increase the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid. Which of the following properties can this substance not have in order to be effective?
permeable to brain plasma membranes
When the pH of the extracellular fluid drops, the
kidneys excrete more hydrogen ions AND kidneys excrete fewer bicarbonate ions
Angiotensin II produces a coordinated elevation in the ECF volume by
All the above: triggering the production and secretion of aldosterone; causing the release of ADH; stimulating thirst
Which hormone(s) is released by heart muscle in response to excessive chamber volume?
A chemical that minimizes changes in the pH of a body fluid by releasing or binding hydrogen ion is called a(n)
Which of the following will stimulate thirst?
All the above: angiotensin II acting on the hypothalamus; drying the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx; an increase in the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid within the hypothalamus
The release of atrial naturetic peptides from the heart will cause the body to
Both: decrease ECF, excrete sodium ions
The most common problems with electrolyte balance are caused by an imbalance between gains and losses of
A person who consumes large amounts of sodium bicarbonate ("baking soda") to settle an upset stomach risks
A patient who has been both vomiting and having diarrhea is losing ________ from his body.
All of the above: Sodium, water, bicarbonate ion, hydrogen ion
Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder metabolic alkalosis?
consequence of prolonged vomiting
Which hormone plays a central role in determining the rate of sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion?
Both: is secreted in response to elevated levels of potassium in the blood; promotes sodium retention in the kidneys
The primary role of the carbonic-acid-bicarbonate buffer system is to
limit pH changes caused by organic and fixed acids
Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder respiratory acidosis?
consequence of reduced alveolar ventilation, for example due to emphysema
Secretion of potassium into the urine is
BOTH: increased by aldosterone; associated with the reabsorption of sodium from the distal tubules and collecting ducts
Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder respiratory alkalosis?
Consequence of hyperventilation, for example in fever or mental illness.