Both: stimulates water intake;stimulates water conservation by the kidneys
The extracellular fluid (ECF) consists of the
All of the above: interstitial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, plasma and lymph
Hypoventilation leads to
When pure water is consumed,
osmolarities of the two fluid compartments fall
When water is lost, but electrolytes are retained,
Osmosis moves water from ICF to the ECF
To reduce brain swelling by pulling water out of brain cells, a substance can be injected intravenously to increase the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid. Which of the following properties can this substance not have in order to be effective?
permeable to brain plasma membranes
When the pH of the extracellular fluid drops, the
kidneys excrete more hydrogen ions AND kidneys excrete fewer bicarbonate ions
Angiotensin II produces a coordinated elevation in the ECF volume by
All the above: triggering the production and secretion of aldosterone; causing the release of ADH; stimulating thirst
All of the following are components of ECF, except
The amount of potassium excreted by the kidneys is regulated mainly by
Which hormone(s) is released by heart muscle in response to excessive chamber volume?
The ions in highest concentration in the extracellular fluid are
sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate.
In response to respiratory alkalosis, the
kidneys retain more hydrogen ions
Which hormone stimulates the thirst mechanism?
A chemical that minimizes changes in the pH of a body fluid by releasing or binding hydrogen ion is called a(n)
In an adult female, the body consists of about ________ percent water.
Which of the following will stimulate thirst?
All the above: angiotensin II acting on the hypothalamus; drying the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx; an increase in the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid within the hypothalamus
Substances that can carry electrical current across cell membranes are called
Approximately ________ liters of peritoneal fluid are produced and reabsorbed each day.
A patient on a ventilator subjected to excessive minute volume is at risk for
The release of atrial naturetic peptides from the heart will cause the body to
Both: decrease ECF, excrete sodium ions
In a lean adult male, the body consists of about ________ percent water.
A person with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus will develop
The most common problems with electrolyte balance are caused by an imbalance between gains and losses of
Excess hydrogen ion is eliminated from the body largely by
Consuming a meal high in salt will
result in a temporary increase in blood volume
A person who consumes large amounts of sodium bicarbonate ("baking soda") to settle an upset stomach risks
Which hormone most affects the osmolarity of blood?
A person with emphysema will exhibit signs of
chronic respiratory acidosis
Exchange between the two main subdivisions of ECF occurs primarily at the
The ions in highest concentration in the intracellular fluid are
proteins, potassium, and phosphate
Prolonged vomiting can result in
A patient who has been both vomiting and having diarrhea is losing ________ from his body.
All of the above: Sodium, water, bicarbonate ion, hydrogen ion
Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder metabolic alkalosis?
consequence of prolonged vomiting
Calcium reabsorption by the kidneys is promoted by the hormone
Which hormone plays a central role in determining the rate of sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion?
Severe kidney damage (such as glomerulonephritis) often leads to
Both: is secreted in response to elevated levels of potassium in the blood; promotes sodium retention in the kidneys
The principal cation in intracellular fluid is
The primary role of the carbonic-acid-bicarbonate buffer system is to
limit pH changes caused by organic and fixed acids
Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder respiratory acidosis?
consequence of reduced alveolar ventilation, for example due to emphysema
About two-thirds of the body fluid is within cells and is termed ________ fluid.
Secretion of potassium into the urine is
BOTH: increased by aldosterone; associated with the reabsorption of sodium from the distal tubules and collecting ducts
Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder respiratory alkalosis?
Consequence of hyperventilation, for example in fever or mental illness.