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Antidiuretic hormone

Both: stimulates water intake;stimulates water conservation by the kidneys

The extracellular fluid (ECF) consists of the

All of the above: interstitial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, plasma and lymph

Hypoventilation leads to

respiratory acidosis

When pure water is consumed,

osmolarities of the two fluid compartments fall

When water is lost, but electrolytes are retained,

Osmosis moves water from ICF to the ECF

To reduce brain swelling by pulling water out of brain cells, a substance can be injected intravenously to increase the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid. Which of the following properties can this substance not have in order to be effective?

permeable to brain plasma membranes

When the pH of the extracellular fluid drops, the

kidneys excrete more hydrogen ions AND kidneys excrete fewer bicarbonate ions

Angiotensin II produces a coordinated elevation in the ECF volume by

All the above: triggering the production and secretion of aldosterone; causing the release of ADH; stimulating thirst

All of the following are components of ECF, except


The amount of potassium excreted by the kidneys is regulated mainly by


Which hormone(s) is released by heart muscle in response to excessive chamber volume?

natriuretic peptides

The ions in highest concentration in the extracellular fluid are

sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate.

In response to respiratory alkalosis, the

kidneys retain more hydrogen ions

Which hormone stimulates the thirst mechanism?


A chemical that minimizes changes in the pH of a body fluid by releasing or binding hydrogen ion is called a(n)


In an adult female, the body consists of about ________ percent water.


Which of the following will stimulate thirst?

All the above: angiotensin II acting on the hypothalamus; drying the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx; an increase in the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid within the hypothalamus

Substances that can carry electrical current across cell membranes are called


Approximately ________ liters of peritoneal fluid are produced and reabsorbed each day.


A patient on a ventilator subjected to excessive minute volume is at risk for

respiratory alkalosis

The release of atrial naturetic peptides from the heart will cause the body to

Both: decrease ECF, excrete sodium ions

In a lean adult male, the body consists of about ________ percent water.


A person with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus will develop

metabolic acidosis

The most common problems with electrolyte balance are caused by an imbalance between gains and losses of

sodium ions

Excess hydrogen ion is eliminated from the body largely by

the kidneys

Consuming a meal high in salt will

result in a temporary increase in blood volume

A person who consumes large amounts of sodium bicarbonate ("baking soda") to settle an upset stomach risks

metabolic alkalosis

Which hormone most affects the osmolarity of blood?


A person with emphysema will exhibit signs of

chronic respiratory acidosis

Exchange between the two main subdivisions of ECF occurs primarily at the


The ions in highest concentration in the intracellular fluid are

proteins, potassium, and phosphate

Prolonged vomiting can result in

metabolic alkalosis

A patient who has been both vomiting and having diarrhea is losing ________ from his body.

All of the above: Sodium, water, bicarbonate ion, hydrogen ion

Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder metabolic alkalosis?

consequence of prolonged vomiting

Calcium reabsorption by the kidneys is promoted by the hormone

parathyroid hormone

Which hormone plays a central role in determining the rate of sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion?


Severe kidney damage (such as glomerulonephritis) often leads to

metabolic acidosis


Both: is secreted in response to elevated levels of potassium in the blood; promotes sodium retention in the kidneys

The principal cation in intracellular fluid is


The primary role of the carbonic-acid-bicarbonate buffer system is to

limit pH changes caused by organic and fixed acids

Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder respiratory acidosis?

consequence of reduced alveolar ventilation, for example due to emphysema

About two-thirds of the body fluid is within cells and is termed ________ fluid.


Secretion of potassium into the urine is

BOTH: increased by aldosterone; associated with the reabsorption of sodium from the distal tubules and collecting ducts

Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder respiratory alkalosis?

Consequence of hyperventilation, for example in fever or mental illness.

Intracellular fluid (ICF) is found only within

the cells of the body

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