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Site Planning and Design
Terms in this set (160)
A length of pipe running under a road or other barrier, used to drain or carry water.
Environmental Impact Statement
A statement, often required by governmental body, which assesses the environmental impact of a proposed development
The length of a lot line along a street or other public way.
The rights to the use or control of the air space above a property.
The elevation of the ground surface after completion of all work.
The general pattern of movement of the water on, under and above the earth.
The surface flow of water from an area.
A fictitious temperature which would produce the same physiological effect as the combined effects of temperature, humidity, and air movement.
Clay pipe, usually with open joints, used to convey water away from a footing or to disperse liquid in a septic tank field.
The right of an owner to have ingress and egress to and from a property.
A street, alley, or other thoroughfare or easement permanently established for passage of persons or vehicles.
A sievelike device at the entrance to a storm sewer which traps matter that could block the sewer.
The process by which water vapor escapes into the atmosphere from plants.
A partial obstruction against flow, in a duct or pipe.
The study of the total pattern of relations between a community or organisms and its environment.
The soil layer beneath the topsoil.
A semicircular open area, with or without a roof, providing a continuous seat.
Land on which buildings have not yet been constructed, but which contain utilities and streets.
The process of controlling, collecting, transporting, and disposing of excess water.
The level below which the subsoil is completely saturated with water. Also called the water table.
The number of degrees north of south of the equator of a point on the earth's surface.
An ornamental garden arrangement.
An underground geological formation through which water flows.
The expected maximum depth of frost penetration in the ground in a given area.
The height above a known point of reference, often taken as the height above sea level.
The rate of rise or decent of a sloping surface. Also, to remove and/or add earth in order to bring the ground surface to a specified elevation or profile.
A line, usually parallel to a property line, beyond which a structure may not extend.
The land surrounding a flowing stream over which water spreads when a flood occurs.
A type of residential siting in which a series of housing units are grouped closely together and surrounded by open space.
The ratio of the area covered by buildings to the total lot area, expressed as a percentage.
A parcel of land.
Paving using crushed stone.
Inclination or slant, especially of the ground surface.
A horizontal plane elevation used as a reference for other elevations in surveying and mapping.
Concrete used for paving which uses crushed granite as the coarse aggregate.
A horizontal angle measured clockwise from north or south.
The intersection of two roads at different levels so that vehicles may move from one road to the other without crossing the stream of traffic. Also called interchange.
Degree day (dd)
The amount by which the average outdoor temperature at a particular location is below 65 degrees F. for one day. Degree days may also be summed and stated for a month or year.
The extension of a building into the property of another.
The temperature of air at which the water contained in the air beings to condense and form dew. It is therefore the temperature at which the air is at 100% relative humidity.
The smallest identifiable parcel of land in a city.
The angle which the sun makes with the horizon.
The boundary line of a lot.
The prevailing or average weather conditions of a place as determined over a number of years.
Removing and/or adding earth in order to bring the ground surface to a specified elevation or profile. Also called earthwork.
A division of urban land, normally private property, which is surrounded by public streets, and which is officially established and recorded.
The net ground area of a lot which can be covered by a building after required setback and other zoning limitations have been accounted for.
A pattern of land use which develops along a line, such as a highway or river.
An imaginary line on the found surface connecting all points of equal elevations.
A landscaped strip of ground between a pedestrian walk and a street.
Any public way or thoroughfare 10 to 16 feet in width which has been dedicated or deeded to the public for public use.
Flow from a culvert, sewer or other channel.
Designing the external physical environment in which buildings and structures are placed.
The elevation of specified point on the ground or on a structure.
A plan of a city of subdivision, showing the boundaries of individual properties.
Space provided for vehicular parking separate from the dedicated street right-of-way.
A very large area of land in which all through traffic is eliminated, but which may be penetrated by cul-de-sacs or minor loop roads.
An open, unoccupied space, other than a court, unobstructed to the sky, on the lot on which a building is situated.
An underground pipe or drain used to carry off waste matter.
One or more spaces designated for physically handicapped persons, requiring special design and dimensions.
A space, open and unobstructed to the sky, located at or above grade, and bounded on three or more sides by the walls of a building.
A legal boundary of a parcel of land.
The rate of slope between two points on a surface, determined by dividing their vertical difference in elevation by their horizontal distance apart.
Gradient = Vertical / Horizontal
The process of determining location, form, and boundaries of a parcel of land by measurement, computation, and drawing.
A hole through which a person can enter a sewer, pipe, conduit, and so on for inspection, repair or maintenance.
Soil Boring Log
A log showing the types of soil encountered in a test boring and other relevant information.
The minimum distance from the property line into which a structure may not exceed.
A sewer for carrying away surface rain water, as opposed to sanitary sewage.
The geographic area from which the participants in an activity are drawn, such as the customers of a shopping center or the employees of a manufacturing plant.
The difference of elevation between adjacent contour lines.
A belvedere or viewing place.
The total horizontal area within the boundary lines of a parcel of land.
The percentage of total rainfall which is not absorbed in the ground and, hence, runs off. It must be collected in a system of surface and subsurface drains.
The climate characteristics unique to a very small area.
The lowest point of the inside of drain, pipe, channel, or other liquid-carrying conduit.
In surveying, a direction stated in degrees, minutes, and seconds as an angular deviation east or west from due north or south.
The design and arrangement of natural elements on a site.
The natural and manmade things, conditions, and influences surrounding a person, community, or place.
A fictitious temperature assigned to a combination of actual temperature and wind velocity which has the same physiological effect as still air at the chill factor temperature. It is also know as window chill index.
The amount or degree of moisture in an area, a determining element of weather.
A public service, such as telephone, water, gas, or electricity.
A pit, usually filled with coarse stone, into which water is conducted for leaching out into surrounding soil.
An excavated, level terrace in a slope used to collect running water.
The gradual wearing away of disintegration of land cause by water, wind, and so on running over its surface.
An approximate level building area.
A housing pattern in which units face into a common open space.
A circumferential or loop roadway around an urban area of development.
An underground pipe or drain used to carry off rain water (storm sewer) or waste matter (sanitary sewer).
What are the primary concerns of SITE DESIGN
1. The Catchment area
2. Transportation network
3. existing neighborhoods
4. Existing public facilities
Non Conforming Use
Grandfathering in an older building into the current zoning. Major alterations = need to conform
Part of community where negative conditions have destroyed real estate desirability
Slope of a lawn
3 Shading devices to reduce solar heat gain
2. Fins or baffles
3. Deciduous Trees
Planned Unit Development.
Outgrowth of 'superblock' concept.
Land developed with combination of commercial, residential, recreation, and civic uses.
Standards include F.A.R. and parking to living ratios.
Measured in BTU (British Thermal Units) per hour per degree Fahrenheit per square foot. Also known as U-factor.
How is wind pressure measured
Pounds / SF
When a tall building acts as a wind break, what condition is created?
A Vortex - wind hits a building and moves over the roof and down the façade, collecting at the base, and creates a high velocity swirl of wind
Well graded soil is comprised of what?
A mixture of coarse, fine, and organic material that allows for an adequate rate of percolation (the flow of water through the spaces between soil grains)
What is the most common method of determining land value?
The 'Market' approach.
The surrounding neighborhood is reviewed to determine the sale price, per SF or acre, for lots of about the same size. Adjustments are made for unique features of the site.
The transformation of granular soil from a solid material into a liquefied state due to vibrations in the earth's surface. Ex: earthquake
allows a property to be used for a permit that would not normally be permitted, but only if certain criteria are met. Usually for public improvement
This is different than a VARIANCE in that it is granted for a special purpose project deemed to be for the welfare of the public.
Slits and Clays
Both types easily absorb water and therefore can change in volume. These soils can heave in freezing temps.
Larger scale blocks that relate to the speed/distance associated with the automobile, rather than the human.
Associated with the suburbs, planned cities, and urban renewal. The block is defined by a faster speed multi-lane roadway and the inner block is filled with cult-de-sacs (non-thruway traffic).
Granular material sized between sand and clay. Easily carried in water (rivers) and dusty when dry. Less stable than sand. Holds water well (heaves).
Arranged so that each can achieve some level of privacy
Arranged so that each can better interact
New Town Concept
Great Britain in 1940s
Post WWII movement to de-congest cities and move people to brand new urban areas that were completely self sufficient. Unfortunately, these towns remained suburban and depended on its neighboring larger urban centers, mostly for employment.
A zoning classification used by some jurisdictions to designate area of high, medium, or low hazard. Based on fire dept equipment, population density, street access, traffic flow, building height.
High hazard areas may require certain non-combustible materials or limits on building use.
An embankment or dam formed to hold or divert a river or stream
Soil Shear Strength
The ability of soil to withstand loads.
The ability of a material to store energy (heat)
Outdoor design temperature
A working average of low temperatures within a particular area.
Regulation of building uses, population density, parking requirements, setbacks, and height limitations.
3 Main concerns when analyzing utilities for a particular site
What is the most economical type of foundation system?
Uses less concrete and steel than mat foundations or piles, and require less excavation.
Types of estimating:
Area/Volume - SD
Subsystems - DD and CD
Quantity and Cost / Labor and Materials - DD and CD
Unit Cost (Cost per room) - DD and CD
Occupancy Use Permit
Issued by governing authority certifying that a completed project complies with the specified use for which it was intended. Occupancy Use cannot change unless building is altered to conform with new requirements of new use.
A written statement signed by the owner and architect to place a maximum limit on construction costs.
The architect has the authority to decide on quality of materials and equipment. He may also be required to modify scope of program to make deductions in the bid package to meet this limit.
For paved areas, what is the minimum slope for drainage away from a structure
Surface runoff must be directed away from structures.
What are the four main site factors that affect the physical form of a building?
1. Site to Structure relationships: does the site have strong, dynamic characteristics or flat, passive ones? The structure should harmonize or contract with the visual aspects of the site.
2. Site to Form relationships: the lines of the site should be considered in relationship to the building's form.
4. Climate: cold requires compact forms. Hot requires open and airy.
A map of surveyed land that indicates boundaries of a particular tract, parcel, or piece of property, drawn to scale, and given dimensions. Legally recorded document may also contain easements, restrictions, lots numbers, etc.
When is a building permit obtained for a construction project?
Towards the end of CDs to insure that the permit will be available by the time the contract is awarded.
What aspects of urban site development are of particular environment concern?
Impacts on adjacent buildings like: shade patterns, wind patterns, drainage patterns, noise, traffic, industrial emissions.
A guarantee that the property title will be transferred to a buyer free of liens, claims or other debts
Basic Road Types
1. Local: low capacity roads with direct access to a site
2. Collector: Connection roads between local and arterial streets.
3. Arterial: Wide, high capacity streets usually connecting to expressways
4. Expressways: Limited access roads with high speed, high volume circulation
Conductance VS Resistance
They are reciprocal: A low 'U' value or Conductance indicates a slow heat loss or high resistance (r value)
According to the Unified Soil Classification System (USC), how are soils classified?
Grain size and physical characteristics such as well-graded, poorly graded, organic and inorganic.
If a high water table is found under a construction site, what portions of the project are affected?
Installation of utilities
What is a good replacement for peat in the soil at a construction site?
Unlike peat, sand has an excellent bearing and drainage capacity
The study of living organisms in relationship to their environment.
A limitation placed on development as described in the property deed. (ex: land can only be used for schools; or it might restrict mobile homes)
Affirmative covenant=commits buyer to perform a specific task in the future
Conditional Covenant=if restrictions in deed are not followed, title reverts back to original owner
The ability of a material to absorb thermal energy. Low Albedo = low rate of absorption.
A level or rolling treeless plain usually in an area of extreme temperature ranges.
Right of Way
An easement or access to another parcel of land, often associated with railroad or utility companies.
What is the minimum slope for an underground drainage pipe?
Drainage lines can be made of clay, concrete, or plastic and can be solid or perforated. Underground drainage should avoid 90 degree angles and use 'Y's' instead.
What are the 4 soil types and their grain size classification?
1. Gravel - particles of 2mm in diameter, excellent bearing capacity, good drainage
2. Sand - particles from .05 to 2mm in diameter, good drainage
3. Silt - Particles from .002 to .05 mm in diameter, stable when dry but can swell when wet
4. Clay - Particles under .002mm in diameter, least stable, poor drainage
In addition, there is also bedrock which is the most stable.
Define Pile Types
What are the components of the total project development budget?
1. Site Acquisition
2. Construction Costs
3. Site development
5. Professional Services
Above what percent of slope does hillside construction generally become prohibitively expensive?
An unexpected foundation repair is needed to be made on a renovation project. How is this unforeseen expense accommodated in the construction budget?
A contingency allowance is used. Usually 5-10% of construction budget
Name 4 patterns of urban development
What legal restrictions apply to most building projects?
Building codes and zoning ordinances
Floor Area Ration (FAR)
Ratio between gross floor area of a building to the area of the lot before setbacks.
If a FAR is 4.0 and the total lot area is 7,500 SF, then the max gross floor area is 4.0 X 7,500 SF=30,000 SF.
Remove setbacks to find maximum first floor area.
Divide max gross area by this number to find number of floors.
What is the formula to determine the percentage of slope?
G = d / L(100)
G= percentage of slope of land
d= vertical distance in feet
L = Horizontal distance in feet between points of slope
Form Based Codes
Land development regulation that fosters predictable built results and a high-quality public realm by using physical form (rather than separation of uses) as the organizing principle for the code.
When air temperature at ground is lower than the air above. Above this layer, the air is cooler again due to elevation. The cooler air at the surface is heavier than the warm air, and becomes trapped, along with pollutants, smog, etc.
measurement of sound. 1 is the threshold of hearing, 140 the threshold of pain. A decibel is the smallest difference between 2 sounds that the human ear can hear.
○ A comfortable noise level is 50-60
○ <30 for sleep and study
○ >85 is safety threshold and can damage ears over time
○ Doubling the distance between the source and the receiver diminishes the sound level 6 dbls
n. the legal process by which a governmental body exercises its right of "eminent domain" to acquire private property for public uses (highways, schools, redevelopment, etc.). Condemnation includes a resolution of public need, an offer to purchase, and, if a negotiated purchase is not possible, then a condemnation suit.
All of the following require condemnation proceedings, EXCEPT the acquisition of a
A. access easement over one property to reach another
B. Strip of land for road widening
C. Permanent Site for an elementary school
D. Right of way for a rapid transit line
A. access easement over one property to reach another
If a private developer wished to develop a cemetery in an area currently zoned for light manufacturing, the developer should apply for a ______.
On a 50,000 SF site with an FAR of 2, how many stories will a maximum sized building be if half of the site is set aside for parking?
How many SQFT per car
Addresses situations where zoning causes undue hardship or addresses unique situations
What 2 consultants are most likely to be part of the preliminary design of a project?
Civil and Landscape
What is CC&R?
Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions. All townhomes, condos and most PUDS and established neighborhoods have CC&Rs
Are zoning or codes essential parts of programming?
What is an EIR?
Environmental Impact report - paid for by owner
Check, township, section
Are in order of size
Check = 24 x 24 mile square
Township = 6 x 6 mile square
Section = 1x1 mile square
What is gray water
Water that has not come in contact with a toilet or kitchen sink
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