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chapter 1-10

STUDY
PLAY
palaeoanthropologist
Students who study the Origins & Species
myth
A traditional story about gods, ancestors, or heroes, told to explain the natural world or the customs and beliefs of a society.
australopithecus
They had brains that were half the size of a normal human
homo habilis
the earliest member of the genus Homo, found on sites dating between 2.5 and 1.6 million years ago
homo erectus
discovered fire, made little pieces of cloth from animal skin, lived in bands, used simple words and gestures too speak, had a massive jaw
homo sapiens
The current human species that evolved in Africa about 200,000 years ago. It includes archaic forms such as (now extinct) Neanderthals and all modern humans
homo neanderthalensis
ranged from europe to middle east, including israel and iraq; 12k to 30k YBP, used same tools as homo sapiens, bigger brains than ours; overlapped with homo sapiens in europe for 10k years
evolution
change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
paradigm
an example that is a perfect pattern or model (Because the new SUV was so popular, it became the paradigm upon which all others were modeled
ice age
any period of time during which glaciers covered a large part of the earth's surface
agricultural village
A relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture. Starting over 10,000 years ago, people began to cluster in agricultural villages as they stayed in one place to tend their crops.
fertile crescent
a geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates
prehistory vs history
the time before written records. all that is remembered of the past as preserved in writing
features of a civilization
Sumerians in Mesopotamia- first irrigation civilization, drainage from the Tigris and Euphrates, first, large cities, writing, buildings, wheel, bricks, plow, bronze. Theocracy changes to monarchy, different classes= different treatment. Egyptians- No middle class, no cities, lived in huts along Nile, mainly farming, slaves, not many problems with them. Chinese- many records with writing, monarchy, Warring states starts when Zhou lose control, live in small villages with few large towns, agriculture no rice, no trade, maybe matriarchy. Emperor is high priest (confuciasism). Greeks- difference between slave and free men, Sparta fights Athens in Peloponesian War, leads to Barbarians Mesodonian takeover, small farms, maritime trade, no large fertile areas, over population causes emigration, religion is civic duty, disrespect Gods. Romans- Etruscan and Greeks effected early Roman civilization, Roman laws, started out with mainly peasants then slaves and unfree immigrants from Africa, Italy becomes dependent on food imports,plantations and estates replace farms
out of africa
family units, clans. tribe Speciation in Africa 100-200 kyr • Expansion out of Africa • Replacement of all non-African species - Modern genes, morphology and behavior appear in African 1st and subsequently replace archaic (eg Neandertal) behavior everywhere
family units
primary social group
nomadic hunter/gathers
A member of a group of people who have no permanent home and move according to the seasons from place to place in search of food, water, and land.
domestication of plants and animals
Early humans domesticated plants and aminals to suit their needs.
metalworking
provided humans with tools and weapons far superior to any made of stone or wood.
division of labor
Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers
neolithic
The period of the Stone Age associated with the ancient Agricultural Revolution(s). It follows the Paleolithic period.
mesopotamia
first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture
sumer
A group of ancient city-states in southern Mesopotamia; the earliest civilization in Mesopotamia.
sargon of akkad
an ancient Mesopotamian ruler who reigned approximately 2334-2279 BC, and was one of the earliest of the world's great empire builders, conquering all of southern Mesopotamia as well as parts of Syria, Anatolia, and Elam (western Iran). He established the region's first Semitic dynasty and was considered the founder of the Mesopotamian military tradition.
akkadian empire
Began in 2350 BCE when Sargon - King of Akkad - began conquering Sumerian cities. The empire was the first to unite city-states under a single ruler and ruled for 200 years.
city-state
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
gilgamesh
the epic story of the king, Gilgamesh, who searched for immortality. This is a Sumerian legend and is believed to be the first story
ziggurat
a temple in Mesopotamia. It had a distinctive shape and was used to store commodities and goods that were given as offerings. People worked and lived there.
ur
an ancient city of Sumer located on a former channel of the Euphrates River
pictograms
the earliest forms of writing in which pictures represent words or ideas
cuneiform
Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets
ideograms
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
code of hammurabi
the set of laws drawn up by Babylonian king Hammurabi dating to the 18th century BC, the earliest legal code known in its entirety
nile
this famous body of water in africa is where the great egyptian civilizations grew is
cataract
great waterfall; eye abnormality (causing a gradual loss of eyesight)
pharaoh
ruler of Ancient Egypt
menes
king of upper egypt united the two kingdoms of upper and lower egypt
ma'at
the Egyptian concept of truth, justice, and cosmic order, represented by a goddess, often portrayed with a feather upon her head
mummification
(pathology) gangrene that develops in the presence of arterial obstruction and is characterized by dryness of the dead tissue and a dark brown color
pyramid
enlarge one's holdings on an exchange on a continued rise by using paper profits as margin to buy additional amounts
old kingdom
2700 BC - 2200 BC. Upper and Lower Egypt kept separate kingdoms, but later built unified government. Developed basic features of its civilization. BUILT THE PYRAMIDS: an eternal resting place for their god-kings.
middle kingdom
2050 BC. - 1800 BC.: A new dynasty reunited Egypt. Moved the capital to Thebes. Built irrigation projects and canal between NIle and Red Sea so Egytian ships could trade along coasts of Arabian Penninsula and East Africa. Expanded Egyptian territory:Nubia, Syria.
hyksos
the people who invaded Egypt thus beginning the second Intermediate period during which the Hyksos ( a word meaning "foreigner) ruled as pharaohs in Lower Egypt and exacted tribute from the royal families in Thebes.
new kingdom
the period of ancient egyptian history that followed the overthrow of the hyksos rulers, lasting from about1570 to 1075 B.C.
akhenaten
Egyptian pharaoh (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.). He built a new capital at Amarna, fostered a new style of naturalistic art, and created a religious revolution by imposing worship of the sun-disk. (p.66)
akhetaten
new city located near Amarna
hieroglyphics
a writing system in which pictures and symbols are used to represent words and sounds
indus valley civilization
also known as Harappan civilization,located in India along the Indus River,near the Thar Desert and the Himalayas Mountains
harappa
Site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium B.C.E. It was located on the northwest frontier of the zone of cultivation , and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials.
mohenjo-daro
Indus Valley city laid out in a grid pattern. Had a complex irrigation and sewer system.
aryans
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
caste system
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
yangshao culture
a formative Chinese culture located at Ordos bulge ca. 2500 to 2000 B.C.E.; primarily an intensive hunting and gathering society supplemented by shifting cultivation.
longshan culture
3000-2200BC, development of ritual and political hierarchies, large walled settlements, evidence of war, specialized craft, shmanistic cults with oracle bones, scapulimacy, mythical animals
xia dynasty
dynasty who ruled over a late neolithic people in early China
shang dynasty
Beginning in 1700BC a 600 year rule that spread along the Huang River until it ruled over 100 towns
zhou dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC; notable for the rise of Confucianism and Taoism
yellow river
In the Summer, the river rages out of control. Since 200 BC, flooded surrounding area about 1,500 times and made nine major course changes.
oracle bones
cattle bones or tortoise shells on which Chinese priests would write questions and then interpret answers from the cracks that formed when the bones were heated
sage kings
Legendary rulers of China c. 2800-c. 2200. Of the three sovereigns and five emperors based in the Huang He (Yellow River) region, Huang-tu (reigned c. 2697 BC) is credited with defeating the barbarians. The era has been associated with the domestication of animals, agricultural development, the gradual replacement of stone implements with bronze, and the formation of larger tribal confederacies.
anyang
the anciant Chinese capital of the Shang Dynasty
mandate of heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
olmecs
(1400 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E.) earliest known Mexican civilization,lived in rainforests along the Gulf of Mexico, developed calendar and constructed public buildings and temples, carried on trade with other groups.
zapotecs
Civilization that flourished in southern Mexico's Oaxaca Valley (c. 500 B.C.E. to C.E. 600)
teotihucan
Pyramids were center. city is still here. believed in religious sacrafices
maya
a member of an American Indian people of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture and pottery and astronomy
moche
Civilization of north coast of Peru (200-700 C.E.). An important Andean civilization that built extensive irrigation networks as well as impressive urban centers dominated by brick temples.
chimu
Powerful Peruvian civilization based on conquest. Located in the region earlier dominated by Moche. Conquered by Inca in 1465.
chavin
First major urban civilization in South America. Capital is de Huantar, was located in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Has 2 distinct ecological zones, the Peruvian Costal Plain and the Andean Foothills.
mississippi valley mounds
Mississippi joined the union under the condition that the military force the slaves to continue to work for the owners. the military had the slaves sign contracts stating they would not leave unless given permission. most slaves couldn't even read.
nok culture
earliest known west african culture, farmers, first to smelt iron weapons and tools, traded, believe to have settled in djenne-djenno located near niger river, also located on important trade routes.
jenne jeno
Ancient West African city that existed for more than 1600 years where the Niger and Bani Rivers meet.
hegemony
the consistent dominance of one state or ideology over others
dominance
An organism with a dominant allele for a particular form of a trait will always exhibit that form of the trait. (ex. Bb ---The big B would be dominant
sargon of akkad
an ancient Mesopotamian ruler who reigned approximately 2334-2279 BC, and was one of the earliest of the world's great empire builders, conquering all of southern Mesopotamia as well as parts of Syria, Anatolia, and Elam (western Iran). He established the region's first Semitic dynasty and was considered the founder of the Mesopotamian military tradition.
babylonians
Of or relating to Babylonia or Babylon or their people, culture, or language.An ancient empire of Mesopotamia in the Euphrates River valley. It flourished under Hammurabi and Nebuchadnezzar II but declined after 562 B.C. and fell to the Persians in 539.
persian empire
a huge empire ranging from Asia Minor to India; Darius I unified the empire by creating provinces and giving each province a ruler; encouraged a money economy with coins rather than goods
amorites
a Semitic people from Syria--military forces went into Mesopotamia--produced a ruler who would dominate Mesopotamia--his name was Hammurabi
hammurabi
King of the Babylonian empire; creator of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the world's oldest codes of law.
hittites
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, the hittites vied with New Kingdom Egypt over Syria
indo european
people who livedi the steppes near europe and talked and the language of indo european which is thought to be the basic of 50 of todays languages
battle of qadesh
fight that occurred between Egyptians and Hittites over control of Syria in 1274 BCE. Each side had around 20,000 men, and it eventually ended with a draw.
assyrians
"Spartans of the near east." ONe of the most warlike ppl in history. Army- very powerful. fully equiped with iron. used charriots, calvary. war machines, controlled ppl through systematic terrorism. To destroy national feeling used mass deporttion. Culture-not original. Borrowedheavily from others and unified deverse elements.Had originality in ther relief structure. Women of palace set to secluded quarters. in public-veiled. Synonym to brutality. they publicized it other countries didnt.
assyrian empire
this empire covered much of what is now mesopotamia, syria, palestine, egypt, and anatolia; its height was during the seventh and eigth centuries BCE
new kingdom
the period of ancient egyptian history that followed the overthrow of the hyksos rulers, lasting from about1570 to 1075 B.C.
hyksos
the people who invaded Egypt thus beginning the second Intermediate period during which the Hyksos ( a word meaning "foreigner) ruled as pharaohs in Lower Egypt and exacted tribute from the royal families in Thebes.
thutmosis
Egyptian ruler, son of Thutmose I, half brother of Thutmose III.
ramses
Called Ramses II or Ramses the Great. led the Egyptians to fight their neighbors, the Hittites for control of Syria. After Battle of Kadesh, the two empires made a peace treaty. Ruled for 67 years. Built many tombs and statues, 52 sons.
hatshepsut
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged.
akhenaten
Egyptian pharaoh (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.). He built a new capital at Amarna, fostered a new style of naturalistic art, and created a religious revolution by imposing worship of the sun-disk. The Amarna letters, largely from his reign, preserve official correspondence with subjects and neighbors
nubia
an ancient region in the Nile River Vally, on the cite of present- day southern Egypt and northern Sudan
cyrus the great
brilliant warrior king, who quickly overcame the Medes. Extended the domains from the borders of India to the Mediterranean
satrapy
the twenty provinces that Darius divided the empire into; each province was ruled by a governor
zarathustra
the mythical founder of chief prophet of the Ancient Persian religion known as Zoroastrianism, which influenced Jewish and later Christian belief
zoroastrianism
dual gods of equal power to form early monotheism; Persian; cosmic struggle over good and bad; those that do good go to heaven and bad go to hell; influenced Judaism and Christianity
minoans
of or relating to the advanced Bronze Age culture that flourished in Crete from about 3000 to 1100 B.C.
knossos
Minoan Palace, decked out with jewels and frescos (plumbing, heat)
mycenaeans
civilization on the greek mainland that conquered the Minoans in Crete in about 1400 B.C.
polis
the early greek city-state, made up of a city and surrounding countryside and run like an independent country
agora
the open space that served as the civic center and market place of ancient Greek cities
athens
Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.
democracy
government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system.
solon
Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt
homer
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey
socrates
Devoted himself to discussion with the aristocratic young citizens of Athens, qestioning the truth of popular opinions. Charged with corrupting the youth of Athens they sentenced him to death in 399 B.C.E. Accepting this outcome, Socrates drank hemlock and died
plato
Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society
aristotle
Greek philosopher and scientist. He was among the most influential of philosophers in Western history
cleisthenes
Athenians reformer of the late 6th centurybc.; established democratic Counxil of 500 in Athens
hoplite
Heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation. Hoplite armies-militias composed of middle- and upper-class citizens supplying their own equipment: Superior to all other forces 128
peloponnesian war
a war fought between Athens and Sparta in ancient Greece.
alexander the great
Greek military leader whos armies conquerd vast amounts of land, ruler of 1st great European Empire of the ancient world
hellenistic
a word meaning to "imitate Greeks"; Greek-speaking civilization which spread through many lands of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond following the conquests of Alexander the Great.
ecumene
The proportion of earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement. This is important because it tells how much of the land has been built upon and how much land is left for us to build on.
pax romana
means "Roman Peace;" specifically the term that refers to the peace and stability that Rome maintained within its borders during the early empire.
republic
a government in which citizens rule through elected representatives
century
a period of 100 years
oligarch
one of several people who rule a country or empire together, sharing the power
consul
one of two elected officials of the Roman Republic who commanded the army and were supreme judges
senate
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.
punic wars
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
tribune
In ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights.
plebeian
In ancient Rome, one of the common farmers, artisans and merchants who made up most of the population.
patrician
a member of the noble families who controlled all power in the early years of the Roman Republic
paterfamilias
the male head of a household; the father of a family.
g. marius
Roman general and consul: opponent of Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
triumvirate
In ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government.
julius caesar
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
octavian augustus caesar
demanded being named consul, split control of italy with antony and controlled sicily and africa, had total control once his army defeated marc antony and cleopatra
mark antony
general and ally of Caesar, divided the Roman world with Octavian, committed suicide with Cleopatra
cleopatra
She was an egyptian queen who had an affair with Marc Antony. She commits suicie with Marc Antony because Marc was defeated at Actium and Augustus was after them.
battle of actium
battle between Marcus Antony and Octavian for control of the empire. Octavian won in 31 B.C.
imperator
comes from the Latin word "imperium"; translates to power of command
colosseum
A large stadium in ancient Rome where athletic events took place
virgil
greatest poet of the Golden Age, called the "Homer of Rome" because the Iliad and the Odyssey served as models for his epic, the Aeneid; focus on Patriotism; it took 10 years to write
mithraism
Mystery religion; underground chambers were used to conduct secret rituals involving the slaughter of bulls; followers were mostly military men
isis
Egyptian goddess who appealed especially to women. She promised life after death to people who were faithful
mystery religion
Can't participate in religion until you've undergone indoctrination and ritual of admission. In early Christianity, the training was called catechism and the ritual of admission into church was baptism.
stoicism
The principles or the practice of the Stoics-being very even tempered in success and failure.
constantine
The emperor who brought Christianity to Rome. He also re-located Rome's capital to Constantinople, the city that was once named Byzantium.
edict of milan
issued by Constantine in 313, ended the "great persecution" and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire
celts
Peoples sharing a common language and culture that originated in Central Europe in the first half of the first millennium B.C.E.. After 500 B.C.E. they spread as far as Anatolia in the east, Spain and the British Isles in the west, onquered by Romans (90)
goths
Germanic tribe made up of the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths who threatened invasion to the empire
justinian
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
justinian code
a set of laws, written by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian, that served the Byzantine Empire for hundreds of years
iconoclasm
a challenge to or overturning of traditional beliefs, customs, and values, any movement against the religious use of image
warring states period
covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC.
qin dynasty
the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall
qin shi huangdi
First Emperor; only emperor of Qin Dynasty; legalist; abolished feudalism and established a bureaucracy; anti-religion; building of Great Wall and other public works
confucius
chinese philosphere and teacher; his belifs,known as confusoinism greatly influenced chinese life
mandate of heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
legalism
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime.
daoism
philosophical system developed by Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
han dynasty
imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time from 206 BC to AD 220) and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy; remembered as one of the great eras of Chinese civilization
liu bang
helped overthrow Qin dynasty, 1st emperor of the Han dynasty, was born a peasant and worked way up to emperor
wudi
chineese empire from 140-86 b.c; brought the han dynasty to its peak; expanded the chinese empire; made confusionism the state religion
yellow turbans
Chinese Daoists who launched a revolt in 184 C.E., promising a golden age to be brought about by divine magic.
sui dynasty
The short dynasty between the Han and the Tang; built the Grand Canal, strengthened the government, and introduced Buddhism to China
tang dynasty
considered the golden age of Chinese civilization and ruled for nearly 300 years; China grew under the dynasty to include much of eastern Asia, as well as large parts of Central Asia
grand canal
An inland waterway, about 1,609 km (1,000 mi) long, of eastern China extending from Tianjin in the north to Hangzhou in the south. Begun in the sixth to fifth century B.C., it was extended in the seventh century A.D. and completed in the 13th century.
annam
the name given by the Chinese to modern-day Vietnam meaning "peaceful" or pacified south.
shinto
religion of early japan characterized by natural-spirit worship
indo aryan
3/4 of Indians are this
vedas
Early Indian sacred 'knowledge'-the literal meaning of the term-long preserved and communicated orally by Brahmin priests and eventually written down. (175)
mahabharata
A vast epic chronicling the events leading up to a cataclysmic battle between related kinship groups in early India. It includes the Bhagavad-Gita, the most important work of Indian sacred literature.
ramayana
is an ancient Sanskrit epic thought to have been compiled between approximately 400 BCE and 200 CE. It tells the story of Lord Rāma, whose wife Sita is abducted by the demon (Rākshasa) king of Lanka, Rāvana. Thematically, the epic explores themes of human existence and the concept of dharma.
rama
The ideal man of Hindu mythology, banished himself in fulfillment of his father's plegde-Hindu
krishna
(an incarnation of Vishnu) is regarded as the transcendent Supreme Lord, the worshiper humbly lowers himself/herself. If Krishna is seen as master, the devotee is his servant. If he loved as a child, then the devotee takes the role of the loving parent. If he is the divine friend, the devotee is is friend. And if he is the beloved, the devotee is his lover. The devotee then makes himself (if male) like a loving female in order to experience the bliss of Lord Krishna's presence. These followers are known as the Hare Krishnas.
janapadas
Major kingdoms/areas that existed in India in 6th century BCE were called this.
magadha
kingdom that emerged as a result of strife for land and power among minor kings; occupied almost all of the Indian subcontinent in the second century BC
chandragupta maurya
Relied on Arthasastra by Kautilya. A rulers handbook which told how to hold a vast empire togeather, spying on your own people. Defeated Seleucus (greek). Paid army with taxas and crops. Government he set up had tax collection, trade, arts, mining, ect.
mauryan empire
The first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 B.C.E. and survived until 184 B.C.E. From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley it grew wealthy from taxes.
asoka
grandson of Chandragupta; most honored emperor for his commitment to spreading peace and prosperity to all; was buddhist but accepted other religions; decline came after his death
artha-sastra
An early Indian political treatise that sets fourth many fundamental aspects of the relationship of rulers and their subjects. It has been compared to Machiavelli's well-known book, The Prince, and has provided principles upon which many aspects of social organization have developed in the region.
kautilya
Chandragupta's chief minister; wrote a book that told rulers what methods would work to keep power; encouraged efficient authority, but didn't spread political values or sense of important of political service
guilds
business associations that dominated medieval towns; they passed laws, levied taxes, built protective walls for the city, etc. Each guild represented workers in one occupation such as weavers, bakers, brewers, sword makers, etc.
gupta empire
Powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture
chandra gupta
Ruler and founder of the Gupta Dynasty. What: Unified all the provinces in the Ganges Valley. Where: Ganges Valley, north India. When: ~320-?. Why: Founded the Golden Age in India
hunas
The group who attacked the Guptas, leading to their fall.
monsoon
These strong and predictable winds have long been ridden across the open sea by sailors, and the large amounts of rainfall that they deposit on parts of India, Southeast Asia, and China allow for the cultivation of several crops a year.
hinduism
a diverse body of religion, philosophy, and cultural practice native to and predominant in India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a desire for liberation from earthly evils
brahma
Hindu god called the Creator. Brahma is the first member of the triad that includes Vishnu the Preserver and Shiva the Destroyer.
vishnu
one of the two main gods of Hinduism; Krishna and Rama are his avatars
shiva
God of destruction, whose dancing in a circle of fire symbolizes the eternal cycle of creation and destruction.
rigveda
a Veda, which was a sacred writing of Hinduism that contained a collection of Hindu poems and hymns that were used for religious reasons
castes
the four classes of people in the social system of the Aryans who settled in India- priests, warriors, peasants or traders, and non-Aryan laborers or craftsmen
brahmin
a cultured, intelligent person of the upper caste; a member of the priestly Brahman caste, the highest caste in India
kshatriya
buddha's father tried to use his powers of being a kshatriya to shelter buddha, but ended up just creating more curiosity for buddha driving him away from his family
vaishya
The third of the four classes of the caste system, made up of producers, such as farmers, merchants, and artisans.
shudra
The lowest of the four castes, made up of servants and laborers
brahmanas
the first level of explanatory texts that helps one to understand the sacrifices and other elements mentioned in the samhitas.
upanishads
Any of a group of philosophical treatises contributing to the theology of ancient Hinduism, elaborating on the earlier Vedas.
dharma
In Hinduism, dharma stands for law, obligation and duty. To follow one's dharma, it means to perform and live life as one should.
karma
the force generated by a person's actions that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life
atman
the individual self, known after enlightenment to be identical with Brahman.
siddhartha gautama
founder of Buddism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha
the buddha
Dedicated rest of his life to keep people from suffering, no more possessions, wanted enlightenment, studied with gurus, monks- couldn't find a way to enlightenment, Sat under a tree to find enlightenment, one day he got transformed, called Buddha- the enlightened one, Enlightened at Bodh Gaya- now is a temple
eightfold path
right views, right thought, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right endeavor, right awareness, and right contemplation. seen as the "midle way"
mahayana buddhism
Great Vehicle branch of Buddhism followed in China, Japan, and Central Asia. The focus is on reverence for Buddha and for bodhisattvas, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment
the four noble truths
Life is characterized by suffering and discontentment, suffering is caused by attachments, Ending attachments and desires ends suffering, and The Eightfold path provides a method for ending attachments and desires.
nirvana
the lasting peace that Buddhists seek by giving up selfish desires
sangha
in Theravada Buddhism, the monastic community; in Mahayana, the spiritual community of followers of the dharma
mahayana
the later of the two great schools of Buddhism, chiefly in China, Tibet, and Japan, characterized by eclecticism and a general belief in a common search for salvation, sometimes thought to be attainable through faith alone.
stupa
small, round burial shrines erected over a gravesite to hold relics of Buddha
theravada
The Buddha is a role model, key virtue is wisdom, monks and nuns practice the truest form, and religious practice is primarily meditation
bodhisattva
enlightenment being; in mahayana, a person of deep compassion, especially one who does not enter nirvana but is constantly reborn to help others; a heavenly being of compassion
jainism
The religion created, loosly based on Hinduism, by Lord Mahavir around 557BC. It's goal is to escape reincarnation and reach a state of bliss.
mahavira
an extreme aesthetic who founded the religion Jainism and thought of several Hindu concepts, such as karma, in a very concrete way
shinto
A Japanese religion whose followers believe that all things in the natural world are filled with divine spirits
kami
the invisible sacred quality that evokes wonder and awe in us, the invisible spirits throughout nature that are born of this essence
shotoku taishi
Is from the yamato clan which was the dominant clan in Japan at the time. He sends experts to china to see how their centralized government and culture worked.
tanakh
acronym derived from the inital consonants of the three sectins into which the Scriptures are divided: Torah, Nevi'im, and Kethuvim
torah
the laws that, according to the Bible, Moses received from God on Mount Sinai; these laws later became the first part of the Hebrew Bible
abraham
the first of the great Biblical patriarchs, father of Isaac, and traditional founder of the ancient Hebrew nation: considered by Muslims an ancestor of the Arab peoples through his son Ishmael.
moses
phrophet and lawgiver who, according to the Bible, led the Israelites out of Egyptian captivity and received the Ten Commandments
yhvh
Four letters (Yod Heh Vav Heh) which stand for the highest Hebrew name for God, which is considered unknown and unpronounceable. These letters are also attributed to the four elements of fire, water, air, and earth. Often referred to as the Tetragrammaton.
dead sea scrolls
discovered in 1947, found in 11 caves, dated from 3d century BC to early 1st century AD (Oldest known manuscripts of Esther / Nehemiah)
diaspora
The dispersal of the Jews from their homeland in Palestine - especially during the period of more than 1,800 years that followed the Roman's destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in A.D. 170.
10 lost tribes of israel
Ancient tribes of Israel that disappeared from the Biblical account after they were enslaved/exiled by Assyrians.
gnostic gospels
one claiming special or secret knowledge. Heresy in the early Church
eucharist
(literally: thanksgiving) denotes the central Christian ritual. Catholics believe in a literal presence of Christ in the taking of bread and wine while other churches have a more abstract understanding. Connects the believer with her community.
paul of tarsus
Who was most responsible for spreading the Christian faith immediately after the death of Jesus?
constantine
Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion.
theodosius
He divides the Roman Empire into two different empires (Roman & Byzantine). He also makes Christianity the only religion you could be.
augustine
Influential church father and theologian; born in Africa and ultimately Bishop of Hippo in Africa; champion of Christian doctrine against carious heresies and very important in the long-term development of Christian thought on such issues as predestination
arianism
early teaching of the church that was heretical by saying that Jesus was not God but created by God
clovis
He was the first Merovingian king who becomes a Christian and he had sons and when he died he didn't leave a will as to who would be the next king so the sons faught.
gregory
is credited with gathering and establishing the liturgical music tradition of the Western church
monasticism
a way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith
benedict of nursia
Italian monk who as founder of the Benedictine order (c. 529) is considered the patriarch of Western monasticism.
orthodoxy
Of, pertaining to, or conforming to beliefs, attitudes, or modes of conduct that are generally approved.
carolingians
the family that ruled the Franks in Gaul from 751 to 987 in the Carolingian Dynasty. This began when Pepin was declared king. They lost power after the Treaty of Verdun.
charlemagne
germanic king who was a famous military leader, improved life, established order, supported edcuation and culture, joined by pope and church, eventually became emperor
carolingian renaissance
rebirth of learning, schools-for noble sons who will become government officials, supports monestaries
quran
Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam.
muhammad
the founder of the Islam religion; to Muslims, Muhammad is the ultimate and final prophet
hadith
A tradition relating the words or deeds of the Prophet Muhammad; next to the Quran, the most important basis for Islamic law.
umma
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community.
mecca
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
ka'aba
a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
hajj
the pilgrimage to Mecca, which every adult Muslim is supposed to make at least once in his or her lifetime: the fifth of the Pillars of Islam.
jihad
the obligation of Muslims to struggle or exert themselves "in the way of God ; doesn't necessarily refer to an armed struggle
dar al islam
house, haven or realm of islam
hijra
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution a.d. 622: regarded as the beginning of the Muslim Era.
caliph
successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims
abu bakr
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death.
sunni
A group of Muslims who accepted the changing dynasties of the Muslim empire during the eighth century
shi'a
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
ali
Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of orthodox caliphs; focus for Shi'a.
imam
A religious leader; hereditary sucessors of Muhammad, venerated in Shiite Islam
mahdi
The last Imam for the Twelvers, believe that he disappeared but will return to save them
ummayyad
Clan of Quraysh that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca; clan later able to establish dynasty as rulers of Isla
abbasid
The dynasty that came after the Umayyads. Devoted their energy to trade, scholorship, and the arts.
fatimids
people who claimed they were descended by Muhammad's daughter Fatima. The Shi'a Muslims formed the Fatimid Caliphate around 1258 in North Africa but it eventually spread to western Arabia and Syria.
seljuk turks
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
ulama
the influential leaders in traditional Muslim society, including spiritual leaders, immars, teachers, state scribes, market inspectors, and judges
sufis
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
delhi sultanate
A Muslim leader of Ghur who defeated Hindu armies made Delhi, the third largest city of India, his capital.
ghana
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast.
mali
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.
sundiata
a leader whose exploits were the foundation of a great oral tradition. created unified state & basic rules for malinke society
mansa musa
this Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west africa
shari'a
immense body of law interpreting the Quran and applying its teachings to daily life, regulates moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, and other aspects of a Muslim community
dhimmi
Literally "people of the book"; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus & Buddhists
crusade
a strong movement to advance a cause or idea;(v.) to campaign, work vigorously
reconquista
The Reconquering of Spain from the Muslims in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella. This unified Spain into a powerful nation-state.
cultural diffusion vs independent innovation
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.
inquisition
Spread of culture from one area of the world to another
women's role in religious practices
women were not able to practice religion
republics vs democracies
Separate government entities joined together in the federal union Popular government
slavery
system where people are forced to work without pay
trade routes
a network of routes where people traded/shared goods as well as ideas and religion