History: Chapter 8 Section 1 and 2
Terms in this set (32)
People who had been born in Spain and then traveled to Latin America. Only they could hold high office in Spanish colonial government
Spaniards born in Latin America. They couldn't hold high-level political office but could rise as officers in Spanish colonial armies
Who controlled the land, wealth, and power in the Spanish colonies?
The peninsulares and creoles
Persons of mixed European and Indian ancestry who came third in the social classes
Persons of mixed European and African ancestry and the enslaved Africans. They came fourth in the social classes because the Europeans believed the African's were stronger than Indians
They were at the bottom of the social ladder because the Europeans thought they were lazy
Why did the slaves in the French colony of Saint Domingue (Haiti) revolt?
They revolted because their white masters used brutal methods to terrorize them, they wanted freedom and rights, and lastly there were more of them then there were Europeans (1791)
The first leader in the Haiti revolt. By 1801he had seized control of the entire island and freed all of the enslaved Africans
What events led up to General Messaline's declaration of independence for Haiti?
After the French agreed to stop slavery if Toussaint agreed to strop the revolution. The French accused him of starting another uprising and arrested him. This left his General, Messaline, to finish the war and declare Haiti independent in 1804 (The first black colony to free itself from European control)
How did events in Europe lead to revolution in the Spanish colonies?
Creoles would travel to Europe and there they adopted Enlightenment ideas. They brought back ideas of revolution to Latin America. The Revolution officially began however, after Napoleon overthrew the King of Spain and instead crowned his brother as king (1810). This caused the rebellion because the people in the Spanish colonies felt no loyalty to the new king and they also remembered Locke's idea of the consent of the governed (democracy).
A wealthy Venezuelan creole
José de San Martín
An Argentinian liberator
What tactics did José de San Martín and Simon Bolívar use to defeat Spanish forces in South America?
San Martín united different armies and forces to become more powerful while Bolívar took the Spanish army by surprise by leading 2,000 soldiers through the Andes and into Colombia unseen
How did the Spanish colonies in Latin America win their freedom?
In 1822, San Martín and Bolivar joined forces. On December 9, 1824 they defeated the Spanish army at the battle of Ayacucho (Peru) signifying the Latin American colonies were independent
What was the grito de Dolores?
This was when Padre Miguel Hidalgo rang the bells of the church, calling together all of the peasants, and issued the rebellion against Spain
What is the significance of the grito de Dolores?
The significance is that it officially started the rebellion against the Spanish
What roles did the Indians, mestizos, and creoles play in Mexico's independence from Spain?
Indians and mestizos made up the lower classes in Mexico and played the leading role in the revolution being the first to rebel. However, they did not have much success on their own.
Creoles had an interesting role. At first they fought with the Spanish army against the rebels. However, after these rebellions, Spain put a liberal group in power (in Mexico) and out of fear of losing their privileges, the creoles teamed up with the Indians and mestizos to fight against the Spanish. With their help, Agustín de Iturbide (a creole who defeated the rebels once before) declared Mexico's independence in 1821
How did Central American states declare their independence from Mexico?
In 1821 many Central American states declared independence from both Mexico and Spain. But, Iturbide (who had now declared himself emperor) ignored their remarks. Iturbide was overthrown in 1823 and Central America declared its absolute independence from Mexico
How did Brazil win independence?
In 1807 Napoleon's armies invaded both Spain and Portugal so King John VI and the royal family left to their largest colony, Brazil, to avoid capture. For 14 years the Portuguese ran their empire from Brazil. After Napoleon's defeat in 1815 King John and the Portuguese government returned to Portugal (6 years later) but his son, Dom Pedro, stayed behind. King John planned to make Brazil a colony again but 8,000 Brazilians signed a petition asking Dom Pedro to rule and to make Brazil independent. He agreed and on September 7, 1822, he officially declared Brazil's independence
Usually wealthy property owners and nobility who argued for protecting the traditional monarchies of Europe
Mostly middle class business leaders and merchants who wanted to give more power to elected parliaments, but only the educated and the landowners would vote
Favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people. They believed that governments should practice the ideals of the French Revolution: liberty, equality, and brotherhood
The belief that people's greatest loyalty should not be too a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history
A nation that has its own independent government that defends its territory and way of life
Cause: French citizens' armies win their revolution for liberty and equality
Effect: Fueled nationalism movements and revolutions throughout Europe
Cause: Greeks revolt against the Ottoman Turks
Great Britain, France, and Russia all united to help Greece win their independence. In 1839, Greece became an independent kingdom
Cause: Nationalist groups in Budapest, Prague, and Vienna demand independence and self-government
Effect: They failed to unite themselves of their nations, so conservatives (monarchies) regained power. In 1849 Europe had practically returned to conservatism
Cause: Charles X tries to set up an absolute monarchy in France (1830)
Effect: Riots arose and Charles was forced to flee to Great Britain. He was then replaced by Louis-Philippe
Cause: Paris mobs overthrow monarchy of Louis-Philippe (1848)
Effect: A republic government was formed but fell apart quickly. The radicals split into two groups, one who only wanted political change and the other who also wanted social and economic reform. The differences cause bloody battles in Parisian streets. The violence turned French citizens away from the radicals. As a result, a moderate constitution was drawn up later in 1848 that called for a parliament and a strong president to be elected by the people
Cause: Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte is elected president of France (1848) and later assumes the title of Emperor Napoleon III
Effect: He built railroads, encourages industrialization, and promoted an ambitious program of public works. Gradually, because of his policies, unemployment decreased, and France experienced real prosperity and peace
Cause: In the Crimean War, Czar Nicholas I threatens to take over part of the Ottoman Empire
Effect: Russia's lack of development caused them to lose the war in 1856. As a result, Alexander II (Nicholas' son), decided to more Russia toward modernization and social change
Cause: Alexander II issues the Edict of Emancipation (1861)
Effect: This edict only partially freed 20 million serfs. In this edict, peasant communities where given half the land in the country while nobles were given the other half. The government paid the nobles for their land while the peasant communities had 49 years to pay the government for the land they had received. So, the refs were legally free but debt tied them to the land