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between polar molecules containing H-O, H-N, or H-F and a lone pair of electrons
what is significant about hydrogen bonding
what holds the 2 strands in DNA is purely hydrogen bonding
Temporary/ instantaneous dipole - when the side of an electron is little bit negative and the other side is a little bit positive which allows the molecule to react for a short amount of time but it is not polar
intermolecular force properties of liquids
1. surface tension
3. capillary action
resistance of a liquid to an increase in surface area
causes breading of water droplets
strong IMF cause high surface tension
the spreading of liquid across a surface to form a thin film
IMF are roughly equal to liquid/surface attraction
resistance to flow
large molecules are viscous
strong IMF cause high viscosity (harder to pour)
tightly packed ions are held together by strong electrostatic forces
larger anions arrange themselves
smaller cations fit into holes
changing from liquid to gas
(evaporation or boiling)
below BP, only molecules with the highest kinetic energy leave from the surface of a liquid
two processes happening at the same rate
involves rates of vaporization and condensation that are equal
when vapor pressure and atmospheric pressure are equal
the higher the temperature, the more energy particles they have so the more pressure they have
when is boiling point reached
when vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure while vapor pressure increase with increasing temperature
temperature at critical point above which a distinct liquid phase cannot exist, regardless of pressure
what do ionic solids have
higher BP and MP
packed together in regular arrays of anions and cations
where does vapor pressure occur and what is it affected by
occurs at liquid surfaces and is affected by IMF
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