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intermolecular forces

hold molecules together with neighbors
weaker than chemical bonds

dispersion forces

between NONPOLAR molecules

dipole dipole forces

between polar molecules

hydrogen bonding

between polar molecules containing H-O, H-N, or H-F and a lone pair of electrons

what determines the type of bond

size, shape and polarity

what is significant about hydrogen bonding

what holds the 2 strands in DNA is purely hydrogen bonding

what does hydrogen bonding cause

high boiling point

what are dispersion forces caused by

temporary uneven charge distribution
temporary dipole

temporary dipole

Temporary/ instantaneous dipole - when the side of an electron is little bit negative and the other side is a little bit positive which allows the molecule to react for a short amount of time but it is not polar

intermolecular force properties of liquids

1. surface tension
2. wetting
3. capillary action
4. viscosity

surface tension

resistance of a liquid to an increase in surface area
causes breading of water droplets
strong IMF cause high surface tension


the spreading of liquid across a surface to form a thin film
IMF are roughly equal to liquid/surface attraction

capillary action

rising of liquid in a narrow tube
combination of cohesive IMF and adhesive forces


resistance to flow
large molecules are viscous
strong IMF cause high viscosity (harder to pour)




very regular microscopic arrangement


disordered microscopic structure

molecular solids

discrete molecules are at lattice positions
strong IMF
weak IMF

ionic solids

tightly packed ions are held together by strong electrostatic forces
larger anions arrange themselves
smaller cations fit into holes


changing from solid to liquid


changing from liquid to solid


chaning from gas to liquid


changing from liquid to gas
(evaporation or boiling)
below BP, only molecules with the highest kinetic energy leave from the surface of a liquid

what does the rate of vaporization depend on

1. surface area
2. temperature
3. IMF

what do closed containers of liquid establish

a dynamic equilibrium

dynamic equilibrium

two processes happening at the same rate
involves rates of vaporization and condensation that are equal


changing from solid to gas without going through liqid phase


changing from gas to solid without going through liquid phase

vapor pressure

a force created by vapor particles over liquid surface at equilibrium


when vapor pressure and atmospheric pressure are equal
the higher the temperature, the more energy particles they have so the more pressure they have

normal boiling point

occurs when vapor pressure is equal to 1 atm

when is boiling point reached

when vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure while vapor pressure increase with increasing temperature

what is observed when heat energy is added to a sample

phase is observed while pressure is constant

what is constant during a phase change


triple point

point at which vapor, liquid, and solid states exist in equilibrium

critical point

point at which the vapor pressure line ends

critical temperature

temperature at critical point above which a distinct liquid phase cannot exist, regardless of pressure

what do IMF affect

physical properties of substances in condensed states

how are metals packed

tightly into regular arrays

how would you describe network solids

"Giant molecules" joined by IMF

what do molecular solids have

weak IMF
low BP and MP

what do ionic solids have

stronger IMF
higher BP and MP
packed together in regular arrays of anions and cations

how do phase changes occur

within changes in temperature and/or pressure

where does vapor pressure occur and what is it affected by

occurs at liquid surfaces and is affected by IMF

what do heating curves track

changed with temperature

what do phase diagrams track

changed with temperature and pressure

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