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496 terms

Anatomy self study

Ch 1 & 2
STUDY
PLAY
Listening to the natural sounds made by the body, such as heart and lung sounds
auscultation
Histology
microscopic examination of tissue specimens
Harvey
scientist who first discovered the role of the heart, arteries and veins in blood circulation
Hooke
scientist who first observed cells under a microscope
law of nature
a level of knowledge that can be used to predict how matter and energy behave
a statement of theory
kind of statement intended to summarize what is already known, predict what might happen, and suggest directions for further study
Proper experimental design includes all of the following:
statistical treatment of the results
methods to prevent experimenter bias such as the double-bind method
the control group receives similar treatment to that of the experimental group, except for the test variable
If a scientist were to speculate were to speculate about the causes of a phenomenon without any definite proof, it would be a
hypothesis
Evolution can be defined as a change in genetic composition. Which of the following terms describes the mechanism believed to be responsible for such changes?
natural selection
During human evolution, humans have developed which characteristics?
color and stereoscopic vision
bipedalism
prehensile hand
Humans are different from other primates because they have
bipedalism
The theory of evolution
explains the slight variance in DNA structure between chimpanzees and humans
Situs invernus and horsehoe kidney are examples of
anatomical variation
A mass of similar cells that forms a discrete region of our body is a
tissue
What part of a feedback loop processes information and determines an appropriate response?
integrator
If you become overheated, which of the following negative feedback mechanisms are used to lower your body temperature?
sweating and vasodilation of surface blood vessels
Development is a characteristic of life that involves
differentiation
The tendency for the bodies of living things to maintain more of less stable internal conditions is called
homeostasis
If your blood pressure started to rise very rapidly, a set of activities that your body would undertake to reverse this potentially dangerous condition would probably begin. The process that would restore stability are called, collectively,
negative feedback
Eponym
a term coined from the names of people
Acronym
word composed of the first letter or first few letters of a series of words
Anatomy
study of structure
Physiology
study of function
Hypocrites
the "father of medicine," established a code of ethics for physicians that is still recited in modern form my many graduating medical students
The Zodiac Man is an illustration from a 15th century medical manuscript that reflects the medical belief in the influence of __ on parts of the body
astrology
inductive method
process of making numerous observations until ones feels confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them
Evolution
change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms
Reductionism
theory that a large complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its similar components
childbirth
an example of normal positive feedback that occurs in the body and is not life threatening or harmful
gross anatomy
structure that can be observed with the naked eye
homeo-
same
The simplest structures considered to be alive are
cells
Versalius
revolutionized the teaching of gross anatomy
theory
embodies the greatest amount of scientific information
hypothesis
an informed, uncertain, but testable conjecture
positive feedback
a self-amplifying chain of physiological events
Which of the following is NOT a human organ system?
integumentary
muscular
epithelial
nervous
endocrine
epithelial
Palpation
studying anatomy by touch
hetero-
different
dissection
cutting and separating tissues to reveal structural relationships
Robert Hooke
invented many components of the compound microscope and named the cell
deduction
a scientist predicts what the result of a certain experiment will be if his or her hypothesis is correct
psychosomatic effects
physiological effects of a person's mental state
homeostasis
tendency of the body to maintain stable internal conditions
Blood pH averages 7.4 but fluctuates from 7.35 to 7.45. A pH of 7.4 can therefore be considered the __ for this variable.
set point
Self corrective mechanisms in physiology care called __ loops
negative feedback loops
organ
simplest body structure composed of two or more types of tissue
Depth perception, or the ability to form three-dimensional images, is also called
stereoscopic vision
Our hands are said to be __ because they can encircle an object such as a branch or a tool. The presence of an __ thumb is important to this ability.
prehensile, opposable
auscult-
ausultation - listen
dis-
dissection - apart
homeo-
homeostasis - the same
metabolo-
metabolism- change
palp-
palpation - touch
physio-
physiology - nature
-sect
dissection - cut
-stasis
homeostasis - to stay
stereo-
stereoscopic - solid
tomo-
tomography - to cut
Auscultation
listening to heart & body sounds
Leeuwenhoek
a textile merchant who build microscopes to examine fabric
a scientific theory
founded on a large body of evidence and summarizes what is already known
volunteer patients
in treatment and control groups
negative feedback
self-corrective process with a beneficial effect on the body
inventions of Carl Zeiss and Ernest Abbe
necessary to the work of a modern histopathologist
There are more organelles than
cells in the body
scuba
acronym for self contained breathing apparatus
The great mobility of the primate shoulder joint
is an adaptation to the arboreal habitat
Which of the following is not an essential part of anatomical position?
feet together
feet flat on the floor
forearms supinated
mouth closed
arms down to the sides
mouth closed
A ring shaped section of the small intestine would be a
transverse section
The tarsal region is distal to the
popliteal region
The greater momentum is superficial
to the small intestine
A midsagittal line passes through the
sternum, umbilicus, and mons pubis
The inguinal region is immediately medial to the
coxal region
WHich of the following regions is not part of the upper limb?
plantar
carpal
cubital
brachial
palmar
plantar
Which of these organs is within the peritoneal cavity?
liver
In which area would pain from the gallbladder be felt?
right upper quadrant
urinary system
organ system that regulates blood volume, controls acid-base balance, and stimulates red blood cell production
The forearm is supinated
when the palms are facing forward
parietal pleura
the superficial layer of the pleura
mediastinum
the right and left pleural cavities are separated by this thick wall
nuchal region
the back of the neck
the manus is most commonly known as the
hand
the pes is most commonly known as the
foot
the cranial cavity is lined by the membranes called the
meninges
Organs that lie within the abdominal cavity but not within the peritoneal cavity are said to have a
retroperitoneal position
The sternal region is medial
to the pectoral region
the pelvic cavity can be described as inferior
to the abdominal cavity in its position
the anterior pit of the elbow is the cubital region and the corresponding (but posterior) pit of the knee is the
popliteal region
ante-
antebrachium - before
cervico-
cervical - neck
epi-
epigastric-above
hypo-
hypochondriac-below
inguino-
inguinal-groin
intra-
intraperitoneal-within
parieto-
parietal-wall
peri-
peritoneum-around
retro-
retroperitoneal-behind
sagitto-
saggittal-arrow
A single sagittal section of the body can pass through
one lung but not through both
It would be possible to see both eyes
in one frontal section of the head
The knee is both superior and
proximal to the tarsal region
The diagrapragm is inferior to the
lungs
The esophagus is superior to the
stomach
The liver extends from the hypochondriac to the
epigastric region, superior to the lumbar region
The heart is in the
mediastinum
Both kidneys could be shown in a
single coronal section of the body
The peritoneum lines the outside
of the stomach and intestines
The sigmoid colon is in the
lower left quadrant
If the atomic weight of hydrogen =1 amu and oxygen = 16 amu, what is the molecular weight of water?
18
If an atom undergoes ionization to lose two electrons, what is its new charge?
positive two
Which of the forms of ionizing radiation from a source outside the body is the most dangerous?
gamma ray
Valance electrons
determine chemical bonding properties
are electrons of the outermost shell
have a maximum number of eight
Which of the following is INCORRECT?
Isotopes have identical chemical behaviors.
Isotopes have different physical properties
Isotopes have the same atomic weights but different atomic numbers.
Unstable isotopes decay and release radiation.
Isotopes have the same atomic weights but different atomic numbers
The amount of an electrolyte that would neutralize one mole of H+ or OH- is always called
one equivalent (Eq)
What is the mEq/L of 2mM Fe^3 electrolyte solution?
6meEq
Chemical solutions that resist changes in pH are called
buffers
One molar solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH-molecular weight 40) would contain one liter of water and how much sodium hydroxide?
40g
When counting items we commonly refer to twelve of something as a dozen. What is the term used to describe Avogadro's number of 6.023 X 10 to the 23rd?
a mole
When a nicotinamide molecule picks up an extra electron, it becomes
reduced
The joining of two glucose molecules, with the subsequent removal of water to form maltose is an example of a
dehydration synthesis reaction
A catalyst would
reduce reaction time
What type of reaction is represented in the following chemical equation? AB->A+B
decomposition reaction
What carbohydrate is impossible for humans to digest?
cellulose
What conjugated carbohydrates are attached to cell surfaces?
glycolipids and glycoproteins
Triglyceride molecule
contains a glycerol molecule
contains three fatty acids
has a neutral pH
Primary function of elcosanoids
chemical signaling between cells
The removal of a phosphate group would yield
a large amount of energy
All of the following are lesser elements in our bodies except:
potassium
sulfur
nitrogen
chlorine
nitrogen
The transfer of electrons from one atom to another is called
ionization
Molecules that freely dissolve in water are
hydophillic
ATP is commonly used as an
energy currency molecule for the cell
A substance that contains at least two different elements
is a chemical compound
An ionic bond is formed when
an anion meets a cation
The ionization of a sodium atom to produce Na+ is an example of
catabolism
The weakest and most temporary of the chemical bonds is
hydrogen bonds
hydrophilic
substance capable of dissolving freely in water
A carboxyl group is symbolized by
COOH
The only polysaccharide synthesized in the human body is
glycogen
The arrangement of a polypeptide into a fibrous or globular shape is called
tertiary structure
Which of the following functions is more characteristic of carbohydrates than of proteins?
energy storage
The feature that most distinguishes a lipid from a carbohydrate is that a lipid has
a lower ratio of oxygen to hydrogen
When an atom gives up an electron and acquires a positive charge, it is called a
cation
Dietary antioxidants are important because they neutralize
free radicals
Any substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by it is a
catalyst.
In the human body, enzymes serve this function.
All of the synthesis reactions in the body form a division of metabolism called
anabolism
A chemical reaction that joins two organic molecules into a larger one & produces water as a by-product is called
dehydration synthesis
-ose
sugar (suffix)
-ase
enzyme (suffix)
The amphiphilic lipids of cell membranes are called
phospholipids
cyclic adenosine monophosphate
chemical derived from ATP and a "second messenger" in cellular signaling
When oxygen is unavailable, cells employ a metabolic pathway called
anaerobic fermentation to produce ATP
substrate
a substance acted upon and changed by an enzyme
inspection
simply looking at the body's appearance, as in performing a physical examination or making clinical diagnosis from surface appearance (also involves touching and listening to the body)
Palpation
feeling a structure with the hands, such as palpating a swollen lymph node or taking a pulse
Auscultation
listening to the natural sounds made by the body, such as heart and lung sounds
Percussion
examiner taps on the body, feels for abnormal resistance, and listens to the emitted sound for signs of abnormalities such as pockets of fluid or air
dissection
careful cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationships
anatomy and dissection
both mean cutting apart
until the 19th century, dissection was called anatomizing
cadaver
dead human body
comparative anatomy
study of more than one species in order to examine structural similarities and differences and analyze evolutionary trends.
exploratory surgery
opening the body and taking a look inside to see what was wrong and what could be done about it
medical imaging techniques
methods of viewing the inside of the body without surgery (have replaced a lot of exploratory surgery)
radiology
branch of medicine concerned with imaging
gross anatomy
structure that can be seen with the naked eye, whether by surface observation, radiology or dissection
histology (microscopic anatomy)
taking thinly sliced tissue specimens, staining them and observing them under a microscope
Histopathology
microscopic examination of tissues for signs of disease
Cytology
the study of the structure and function of individual cells
Ultrastructure
the fine detail, down to the molecular level, revealed by electron microscope
Hippocrates
the "father of medicine" established a code of ethics for physicians, still recited in modern form by graduating medical students
Aristotle
one of the first philosophers to write about anatomy and physiology
Method used for listening to a patient for a heart murmur
Auscultation
Method used for studying the microscopic structure of the liver
Histology
Method used for microscopically examining liver tissue for signs of hepatitis
Histopathology
Method for learning the blood vessels of a cadaver
dissection
Method for performing a breast self-examination
Palpation
Claudius Galen
physician to the Roman gladiators, wrote the most influential medical textbook of the ancient era. Dissected pigs, monkeys and other animals. Warned people that that science was a method of discovery and people should trust their own observations
Maimonides
Jewish rabbi, physician to the sultan, wrote 10 medical books and treatises on specific diseases
Ibn Sina aka Avicenna
wrote The Cannon of Medicine, the leading authority in European medical schools for over 500 years
Andreas Versalius
taught anatomy in Italy, human dissections were started again, first to publish accurate illustrations for teaching anatomy, published the first atlas of anatomy, De Humani Corporis Facrica
William Harvey
studied physiology, blood circulation, book De Motu Cordis (On the Motion of the Heart)
Michael Servetus and William Harvey
the first Western scientists to realize that blood must circulate continuously around the body, from the heart to the other organs and back to the heart again
Robert Hooke
made many improvements to the compound microscope, the first to see and name cells
Anthony van Leeuwenhoek
textile merchant, invented a simple single-lens microscope
Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe
improved the compound microscope, adding the condenser and developing superior optics
Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
said that all organisms were composed of cells
Cell theory
most important breakthrough in biomedical history, all functions of the body are now interpreted as the effects of cellular activity
Scientific method
refers less to observational procedures than to certain habits of disciplined creativity, careful observation, logical thinking, and honest analysis of one's observations and conclusions.
Bacon and Descartes
argued against biased thinking and for more objectivity in science, echoes of Bacon's philosophy are in the scientific method - they are credited with putting science on the pay to modernity and inventing new habits of scientific thought
Inductive method (Bacon)
process of making numerous observations until one feels confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them.
hypothetico-deductive method
an investigator begins by asking a question and formulating a hypothesis
hypothesis
educated speculation or possible answer to the question.
A good hypothesis must be:
1. consistent with what is already known
2. capable of being tested and possibly falsified by evidence
Falsifiability
if we claim something is scientifically true, we must be able to specify what evidence it would take to prove it wrong. If nothing could possibly prove it wrong, then it is not scientific.
The purpose of a hypothesis is
to suggest a method for answering a question.
From the hypothesis, a researcher makes a
deduction (If-then)
If my hypothesis on epilepsy is correct then.....
Experiment: Sample Size
An adequate sample size controls for chance events and individual variations in response and puts more confidence in the outcome. (A drug tested on 5,000 people more trustworthy than drug tested on 5 people)
Experiment: Controls
experiments require comparison between treated and untreated individuals so they can judge whether the treatment has effect.
Control group:
subjects that are as much like the treatment group as possible except with respect to the variable being tested.
Experiment: Psychosomatic effects
Effects of the subject's state of mind on his or her physiology - can have an undesirable effect on experimental results if not controlled. therefore, a placebo is given, and neither group is to know what they are taking
Experiment: Experimenter bias
Experimenters may want result so much that their biases, even subconscious ones, can affect their interpretation of the data. The double blind method helps control this
Experiment: Statistical testing
Scientists use statistical tests applied to the data, like the chi-square test, the t test, or an analysis or variance.
peer review
a critical evaluation by other experts in that field. Ensures honesty, objectivity, and quality in science
fact
information that can be independently verified by any trained person (iron deficiency leads to anemia)
a law of nature
a generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave, result of inductive reasoning based on repeated, confirmed observations
the law of complementary base pairing: In the double helix of DNA, a chemical base adenine always pairs with thymine and guanine always pairs with cytosine
law of nature (example)
Boyles law - under specified conditions, the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure
law of nature (example)
theory
explanatory statement of set of statements derived from facts, laws, and confirmed hypothesis
Darwin
first well supported theory of human evolution, human evolution and features of anatomy and behavior that reveal our relationship to other animals
Evolution
change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms
Natural selection
the principal theory of how evolution works: some individuals within a species have hereditary advantages over their competitors that enable them to produce more offspring. They pass these advantages on to their offspring and the characteristics are more and more common in successive generations. Genetic change is made that constitutes evolution.
Selection pressures
natural forces that promote the reproductive success of some individuals more than others (climate, predators, disease, competition, and the availability of food)
Adaptations
features of an organism's anatomy, physiology and behavior that have evolved in response to these selection pressures and enable the organism to cope with the challenges of its environment.
Chimpanzees closest living relative is
homo sapiens (humans)
model
An animal species or strain selected for research on a particular problem (a mouse model for leukemia)
arboreal
treetop habitat
opposable
opposable thumb can cross the palm to touch the finger tips and enable primates to hold small objects and manipulate them more precisely than other mammals can.
prehensile
able to grasp branches by encircling them wit the thumb and fingers (opposable thumbs make the hands prehensile)
steroscopic
depth perception, the eyes of primates moved to a more forward facing position, which allowed for stereoscopic vision. This adaptation provided better hand-eye coordination in catching and manipulating prey, and leaping from tree to tree. Color vision, rare among mammals, is a primate hallmark
bipedalism
standing and walking on two legs
Australopithecus
oldest bipedal primates 3.9-4.2 million years ago
Early Homo (genus Homo)
2.5 million years ago, hominids w/ taller stature, greater brain volumes, simple stone tools and probably articulate speech
Homo erectus
1.8-2.0 million years ago migrated from Africa to parts of Asia
Homo sapiens
200,000 years ago, originated in Africa
Evolutionary (darwinian) medicine
traces some of our diseases and imperfections to our evolutionary past
bi
two
ped
foot
The organism is composed of
organ systems
organs are composed of
tissues
tissues are composed of
cells
cells are composed partly of
organelles
organelles are composed of
molecules
molecules are composed of
atoms
organism
a single, complete individual
organ system
a group of organs with a unique collective function, such as circulation, respiration, or digestion
The human body has
11 organ systems
Organ systems:
integumentary
skeletal
muscular
nervous
endocrine
circulatory
lymphatic
respiratory
urinary
digestive
reproductive systems
organ
a structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function
the body's largest organ
the skin
tissue
a mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function
Four primary classes of tissues (CEMN):
Connective
Epithelial
Muscular tissue
Nervous
Cells
the smallest units of an organism that carry out all of the basic functions of life: nothing simpler is considered alive
A cell is enclosed in a
plasma membrane composed of lipids and proteins
Most cells have one nucleus and an
organelle that contains its DNA
Cytology
the study of cells and organelles
Organelles
microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions (i.e. mitochondria, centrioles and lysosomes)
molecules
particle composed of at least two atoms (organelles and other cellular components are composed of molecules)
macromolecules
the largest molecules, such as proteins, fats, and DNA
atoms
the smallest particles with unique chemical identities
reductionism
the theory that a large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components (Aristotle)
Holism
the complementary theory that there are emergent properties of the whole organism that cannot be predicted from the properties of separate parts-human beings are more than the sum of their parts. (To be most effective, a health care provider treats not merely a disease or an organ system, but a whole person)
Anatomical variation
human bodies are not all the same internally. Some people lack certain organs. Most have five lumbar vertebrae (bone of the lower spine), but some people have six and some people have four, etc..
situs inversus
the organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities are reversed between right and left
dextrocardia
a selective right-left reversal of the heart
situs perversus
a single organ occupies an atypical position (i.e. a kidney located low in the pelvic cavity instead of high in the abdominal cavity)
Why would it be important for a person with situs inverses to have this noted on a MedicAlert bracelet?
So physicians can correctly diagnose conditions (organs of thoracic and abdominal cavities are reversed)
Organization
Living things exhibit a far higher level of organization than the nonliving world
Cellular composition
Living matter is always compartmentalized into one or more cells
Metabolism
Living things take in molecules from the environment and chemically change them into molecules that form their own structures, control their physiology or provide them with energy
Metabolism
the sum of internal chemical change
anabolism
relatively complex molecules are synthesized from simpler ones (i.e. protein synthesis)
catabolism
relatively complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones (protein digestion)
excretion
the separation of wastes from the tissues and their elimination from the body
Responsiveness and movement
the ability of organisms to sense and react to stimuli (changes in their environment) is called responsiveness, irritability or excitability. Responsiveness is evident in animals b/c of nerve and muscle cells
Homeostasis
the ability to maintain internal stability even when the environment around an organism changes
Development
any change in form or function over the lifetime of the organism
Development involves:
1. Differentiation - the transformation of cells with no specialized function into cells that are committed to a particular task
2. Growth - an increase in size
Growth
The growth of the body occurs through chemical change (metabolism)
Reproduction
All living organisms can produce copies of themselves
Evolution
All living species exhibit genetic change from generation to generation and therefore evolve. This occurs because mutations (changes in DNA structure) and inevitable and b/c environmental selection pressures endow some individuals with greater reproductive success than others.
If a textbook states a typical human heart rate, blood pressure, red blood cell count, or body temperature,
it is assumed that such values are for a health young adult unless otherwise stated (reference man and reference woman)
reference man
a health male 22 years old, 70kg (154 pounds), living at a temp of 20 degrees Celcius, engaging in light physical activity, and consuming 2,800 kcal per day.
reference woman
22 year old female, weight of 58kg (128 lb), living at a temp of 20 degrees Celcius, engaging in light physical activity and consuming 2,000 kcal per day
Cannon
coined the term homeostasis
Pathophysiology
the study of unstable conditions that result when our homeostasis controls go awry
Bernard
observed that the internal conditions of the body remain quite constant even when external conditions vary greatly.
dynamic equilibrium
balanced change, the internal state of the body, in with there is a certain set point or average value for a given variable and conditions fluctuate slightly around this point (i.e. 37 degrees celcius for body temp)
set point
average value for any given variable - 37 degrees celcius for body temp
negative feedback
a process in which the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that negate or reverse it (key mechanism to maintaining health)
feedback loops
feedback mechanisms alter the original changes that triggered them (temp)
vasodilation
the widening of the blood vessels. When blood vessels of the skin dilate, warm blood flows closer to the body surface and loses heat to the surrounding air. If this is not enough to return your temp to normal, sweating occurs
vasconstriction
a narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin
- serves to retain warm blood deeper in your body and reduce heat loss
-if this is not enough, the brain activates shivering, muscle trimmers that generate heat
baroreceptors
sensory nerve endings
When you get out of bed, gravity causes some of your blood to drain away from your head and upper torso, resulting in falling blood pressure in this region, a local imbalance in your homeostasis
-Baroreceptors above heart respond to drop in blood pressure
-Baroreceptors send signals to cardiac center of brainstem
-Cardiac center accelerates heartbeat
-Blood pressure rises to normal & homeostasis is restored
cardiac center
regulates heart rate
receptor
a structure that senses a change in the body (stretch receptors that monitor blood pressure)
integrating (control) center
a mechanism that processes information, relates it other available information, and makes a decision about what the appropriate response should be.
Integrating (control) center examples
cardiac center of the brain or
-comparing what blood pressure is with what it should be and makes a decision what the resonse should be
effector
cell or organ that carries out the final corrective action (ex. restoration of normal blood pressure)
positive feedback
self-amplifying cycle in which a physiolocial change leads to even greater change in the same direction, rather than producting the corrects effects of negative feedback. (ex. giving birth)
Positive feedback
can sometimes be harmful or life-threatening process b/c it can change the internal state of the body far from its homeostatic point (high fever)
suffix
added to the end of a word to alter its meaning
combing vowels
inserted to join roots and make the word easiter to pronounce (o in cardiomyopathy)
prefix
modify the core meaning of the word
acronyms
words composed of the first letter, or first few letters of a series of words
Roentgen
discovered X-rays, a form of high energy radiation, that can penetrate soft tissues of the body
Radiography
the process of examining the body with X-rays
radiography
used in denistry, mammography, diagnosis of fractures, and examination of the chest
Disadvantages of radiography
images of overlapping organs can be confusing, slight differences in tissue density are not easily detected, and X-rays can cause mutations leading to cancer and birth defects. Accounts for 1/2 of clinical imaging
Computed Tomography (CT scan)
sophisticated application of X-rays where the patient is moved through a ring-shaped machine that emits low-intensity X-rays on one side and receives them with a detector on the opposite side. An image of a "slice" of the body as thin as a coin is produced to contruct 3-D images of the body.
Advantages of CT scan
Little overlap of organs with 3-D images of body, and image is much sharper than regular X-ray. Requires extensive knowledge of cross-sectional anatomy to interpret images. Useful to identify tumors, aneurysems, cerebral hemorrhages, kidney stones, etc. Almost eliminated expoloratory surgery.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Cylinder chamber surrounded by large electromagnetic field 3,000 to 60,000 times as strong as the earth's. Hydrogen atoms in the tissues align themselves with the magnetic field. The MRI can see clearly through the skull and cpinal colum to produce images of the nervous tissues.
Functional MRI (fMRI)
a varition of MRI that visualizes moment to moment changes in tissue function. These scans of the brain show shifting patterns of activity as the brain applies itself to a specific sensory, mental or motor task. Has replacted the PET for visualizing brain function.
Sonography
second oldest and most widely used method of imaging. A handheld device held firmly to the skin produces high frequency ultrasound waves and receives the signals that echo back from internal organs.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Sonography
Not useful for examining bones or lungs
Good for obstretrics where the images can be used to locate the placenta and evaulate fetal age, position and development. Avoids the harmful effects of X-rays and equipment is inexpensive and portable. Main disadvantage is that the image is not sharp.
Anatomical position
person stands erect, feet flat on floor close together, arms are held downward and spinated, palms and face directed forward
thyroid
superior to the heart
sternum
anterior to the heart
aorta
posterior to the heart
In anatomical position, the forearm is
supinated
supinated
roated, so that the palm faces anteriorly
When the forearm is pronated, the palm faces
posteriorly
A person is supine if
lying face up
A person is prone if
lying face down
The three major anatomical planes are
sagittal, frontal and transverse
Many views of the body are based on real or imaginy "slices" of the body called
sections or planes
A sagittal plane (aka median or mid-sagittal plane)
passes vertically through the body or an organ and divides it into right and left portions
The head and pelvic organs are commonly illustrated on the
median plane
A frontal (coronal) plane
also extends vertically, but is perpendicular to the sagittal plane and divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.
A frontal section of the head
would divide it into one portion bearing the face and another bearing the back of the head
Contents of the thoracic and abdominal cavities are most commonly shown in the
frontal section (coronal plane)
A transverse (horizonal plane)
passes across the bodyor an organ perpendicular to is long axis, dividing the body or organ into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions
CT scans are
transverse sections
directions terms
words that describe the location of one structure relative to another
Ventral
toward the front or belly
Dorsal
Toward the back or spine
Anterior
Toward the ventral side
Posterior
Toward the dorsal side
Cephalic
Toward the head or superior end
Rostral
Toward the forward or nose
Caudal
Toward the tail or inferior end
Superior
Above
Inferior
Below
Medial
Toward the median plane
Lateral
Away from the median plane
Proximal
Closer to the point of attachment or origin
Distal
Farther from the point of attachment or origin
Ipsilateral
On the same side of the body
Contralateral
On the opposite side of the body
Superficial
Closer to the body surface
Deep
Farther from the body surface
The aorta is ventral to the
vertebral column
The vertebral column is
dorsal to the aorta
The sernum is
anterior to the heart
The esophagus is posterior to the
trachea
The cephalic end of the embryonic neural tube
develops in the brain
The forebrain is
rostral to the brainstem
The heart is superior to the
diaphragm
The liver is inferior to the
diaphragn
The heart is medial to the
lungs
the eyes are lateral to the
nose
The elbow is proximal to the
wrist
the fingernails are at the distal ends of the
fingers
The liver is ipsilateral to the
appendix
The spleen is contralateral to the
liver
the skin is superficial to the
muscles
the bones are deep to the
muscles
Axial region
head, neck (cervical region) and trunk
trunk
divided into the thoracic region above the diaphragm and the abdominal region below it
Abdominal structures
right upper quadrant (RUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), left upper quadrant (RUQ), left lower quadrant (LLQ)
Cephalic
head
facial
face
Thoracic
chest
Acromial
shoulder
Brachial
arm
Cubital
elbow
Antebrachial
forearm
Carpal
wrist
Palmar
palm
Coxal
hip
Patella
knee
Cervical
neck
Inguinal
groin
Femoral
thigh
Crural
leg
Tarsal
ankle
Pedal
foot
Plantar surface
sole
Nuchal
back of neck
Gluteal
buttock
Calcaneal
heel
The appendicular region of the body
upper and lower limbs (arm -brachial region, forearm - antebrachial , wrist -carpal, hand - manual region and fingers - digits)
The lower limb includes
thigh - femoral region, leg-crural region, ankle - tarsal region, foot - pedal region, and toes - digits.
segment of a limb
a region between one joint and the next (the arm, is the segment between the shoulder and elbow joints)
cranial cavity
enclosed by the cranium (braincase) and contains the brain
vertebral canal
enclosed by the vertebral column (backbone) and contains the spinal cord
meniges
protect the nervous tissues and the protective bone that encloses it
coeloem
During embryonic development, the coeloem space develops within the runk. It becomes partitioned by a muscular sheet, the diaphragm.
mediastinum
thick wall in the middle of the thoracic cavity
thoracic cavity
region between the lungs, extending from the base of the neck to the diaphragm
heart is enfolded in a two layer membrane called the
pericardium
the inner layer of the pericardium forms the surface of the heart itself and is called the
visceral pericardium
The outer layer of the heart is called the
parietal pericardium (pericardial sac
The outer layer of the heart (parietal pericardium or pericardial sac)
is separated from the visceral pericardium by a space called the pericardial cavity, that is lubricated by the pericardial fluid.
The right and left sides of the thoracic cavity contain
the lungs
Each side of the lungs is lined by a serous membrane called the
pleura
The pleura has
visceral (inner) and parietal (outer) layers
The visceral (inner) pleura forms the
external surface of the lung
The parietal (outer) pleura lines the
inside of the rib cage
The narrow space between the visceral pleural and the parietal pleural is called the
pleural cavity.
-It is lubricated by slippery pleural fluid.
The abdominopelvic cavity
the abdominal cavity superiorly and the pelvic cavity inferiorly
Abdominopelvic cavity
digestive organs, spleen, kidneys, and ureters.
Skin, hair, nails, cutaneous glands
(Integumentary System)
Protection, water retention, temp regulation, vitamin D. synthesis, cutaneous sensation, nonverbal communication
Bones, cartilages, ligaments
(Skeletal System)
Support, movement, protective enclosure of viscera, blood formation, mineral storage, electrolyte and acid-base balance
Skeletal muscles
(Muscular System)
Movement, stability, communication, control of body openings, heat production
Brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia
(Nervous System)
Rapid internal communication, coordination, motor control and sensation
Pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, testes, ovaries
(Endocrine system)
Hormone production, internal communication and coordination
element
simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties
protons
center of atom with a single positive charge 1amu
neutron
a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
electron
negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus
valence electrons
electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
radioisotopes
an isotope that has an unstable nucleus and undergoes radioactive decay
ions
charged particles with unequal numbers of protons and electrons
electrolytes
minerals that carry electrical charges that help maintain the body's fluid balance.
molecules
chemical particles composed of two or more atoms united by a chemical bond
compounds
molecules with two or more elements
molecular weight
the sum of all the atomic weights of the atoms in a given molecule
chemical bonds
attractive forces that hold atoms together
covalent bonds
forms when electrons are shared between atoms
hydrogen bonds
the weak bond bridging hydrogen atoms and atoms of the opposite charge
ionic bonds
transfer electrons
solution
homogeneous mixture
solute
substance that is dissolved
solvent
A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances. (water)
colloids
homogeneous particles are mixed together but not dissolved (blood plasma)
A solution with a pH of 7 is
neutral
ph below 7 are
acidic
pH above 7 are
basic
Chemical solutions that resist changes in pH are called
buffers
An acid is a
proton donor (releases a proton H+ in water)
A base is a
proton acceptor.
Energy
the capacity to do work
Work
to move something
Squamous
cells are thin, flat and often have a bulge where the nucleus is
microvilli
structure that increases cell surface area
glycolipids and glycoproteins function to
confer each cell's unique identity or fingerprint
cilia
most closely related to moving particle matter along the surface of the epithelium
the larger particles do not move across the membrane because
the membrane is selectively permeable
factors that affect the rate of diffusion through a membrane include
molecular weight of particle
concentration gradient
membrane permeability
hypotonic
solution that has lower concentration of non permeating solutes than the intracellular fluid
mitochondria
organelles compared to a powerhouse because it supplies the cell with energy
the nucleus of the cell
is the site of RNA synthesis
is the largest organelle in eukaryotes
has a double membrane
Endoplasmic reticulum can be smooth or rough. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is different from the smooth because it has
ribosomes embedded in it
What size (in diameter) are most human cells?
10-15 µm
Pasteur provided experiments that disproved which of the following ideas:
spontaneous generation.
Membrane phospholipids arrange themselves with their hydrophilic ends toward the _________ of the membrane and their hydrophobic ends toward the ________ of the membrane.
surface; center
A protein that adheres to the intracellular face of the plasma membrane is called a(n)
peripheral protein.
G proteins
are peripheral proteins
are activated by surface receptors.
relay hormone and neurotransmitter stimuli to secondary messengers.
Microvilli are characterized by all of the following except
they appear as a brush border.
B) their primary function is absorption.
C) they have a chloride pump.
D) they increase the surface area of a cell.
they have a chloride pump.
In cystic fibrosis, the cilia become embedded in sticky mucus due to a malfunction of the
chloride pump
Membrane proteins that aid in communications from other cells are
receptors.
Microvilli
increase a cell's external surface area and are found on intestinal cells.
When blood pressure in capillaries forces water and dissolved solutes out into the tissue fluid, this is called
filtration
The hydrostatic pressure required to stop osmosis is known as
osmotic pressure.
Blood cells in a hypotonic solution will
burst (hemolysis).
The Na+ K+ pump is associated with
active transport.
resting membrane potential.
antiporters and symporters.
Insulin is removed from the bloodstream by the endothelial cells by which of the following methods?
receptor-mediated endocytosis
Where the extracellular fluid is more highly concentrated than the intracellular fluid, we may say it is
hypertonic.
By what method can the intestinal cells absorb sodium ions if they are in higher concentration inside the cell?
active transport
The letters A, G, T, and C represent
nitrogenous bases.
The type of bond between the A-T and G-C pairs is
hydrogen.
Proteins which serve as "spools" to help organize chromatin are called
histones.
Where would you find an anticodon?
on tRNA
If one strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence CTTTAT what will the RNA codons be when transcribed?
GAAAUA
Translation occurs in the
ribosomes
The term semiconservative refers to
DNA replication
The cell cycle refers to
the life cycle in a normal cell.
Mitosis functions to
increase cell number for growth.
When a red flower crossed with a white flower produces a pink flower, which of the following is demonstrated?
incomplete dominance
Embryonic connective tissue is termed
mesenchyme
These cells are named pseudostratified because
they appear to be layered, but in fact are not.
Where is transitional epithelium found in humans?
in the urinary bladder
In compact bone, the delicate canals that extend between one lacunae to another are called
canaliculi.
Which of the primary tissue types is the most abundant and the most variable?
connective tissue
Which of the following tissue types respond quickly to changes in the membrane potential?
skeletal muscle
nervous tissue
cardiac muscle
This excitable tissue is characterized by having intercalated discs and striations.
cardiac muscle
If the secretory cells of an exocrine gland form a dilated sac, the gland is called a(n)
acinar gland.
Cells that are undifferentiated and have not yet begun to perform specialized functions are known as
stem cells.
How many different types of cells exist within the human body?
200
Mesoderm differentiates directly into which of the following types of embryonic tissue?
mesenchyme
This tissue type has a mesodermal origin
skeletal muscle
Embryonic connective tissue is termed
mesenchyme.
The material that lies between an epithelium and its underlying connective tissue is called
basement membrane.
Transitional epithelium is found in the
urinary tract.
The simple squamous epithelium lining the circulatory system is called
endothelium.
Which of the following substances are secreted by plasma cells?
antibodies
Collagen fibers are found in all of the following locations except
transitional epithelium.
From the contents of this tissue, one can produce a great amount of ATP.
adipose tissue
This excitable tissue is characterized by having intercalated discs and striations.
cardiac muscle
Which of the following is a description of a tight junction?
pattern of complementary grooves and ridges in the membranes of two adjacent cells
Which type of gland has vesicles that release their secretion by exocytosis?
merocrine
The subcutaneous oil glands in the scalp secretes in which way?
holocrine
If the secretory cells of an exocrine gland form a dilated sac, the gland is called a(n)
acinar gland.
What is formed in an immobilized person when continuous pressure on the skin cuts off the blood flow to an area?
decubitus ulcer
The replacement of damaged tissue with scar tissue is called
fibrosis.