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scientist who first discovered the role of the heart, arteries and veins in blood circulation
a statement of theory
kind of statement intended to summarize what is already known, predict what might happen, and suggest directions for further study
Proper experimental design includes all of the following:
statistical treatment of the results
methods to prevent experimenter bias such as the double-bind method
the control group receives similar treatment to that of the experimental group, except for the test variable
If a scientist were to speculate were to speculate about the causes of a phenomenon without any definite proof, it would be a
Evolution can be defined as a change in genetic composition. Which of the following terms describes the mechanism believed to be responsible for such changes?
During human evolution, humans have developed which characteristics?
color and stereoscopic vision
The theory of evolution
explains the slight variance in DNA structure between chimpanzees and humans
What part of a feedback loop processes information and determines an appropriate response?
If you become overheated, which of the following negative feedback mechanisms are used to lower your body temperature?
sweating and vasodilation of surface blood vessels
The tendency for the bodies of living things to maintain more of less stable internal conditions is called
If your blood pressure started to rise very rapidly, a set of activities that your body would undertake to reverse this potentially dangerous condition would probably begin. The process that would restore stability are called, collectively,
the "father of medicine," established a code of ethics for physicians that is still recited in modern form my many graduating medical students
The Zodiac Man is an illustration from a 15th century medical manuscript that reflects the medical belief in the influence of __ on parts of the body
process of making numerous observations until ones feels confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them
theory that a large complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its similar components
an example of normal positive feedback that occurs in the body and is not life threatening or harmful
Which of the following is NOT a human organ system?
a scientist predicts what the result of a certain experiment will be if his or her hypothesis is correct
Blood pH averages 7.4 but fluctuates from 7.35 to 7.45. A pH of 7.4 can therefore be considered the __ for this variable.
Depth perception, or the ability to form three-dimensional images, is also called
Our hands are said to be __ because they can encircle an object such as a branch or a tool. The presence of an __ thumb is important to this ability.
Which of the following is not an essential part of anatomical position?
feet flat on the floor
arms down to the sides
WHich of the following regions is not part of the upper limb?
organ system that regulates blood volume, controls acid-base balance, and stimulates red blood cell production
Organs that lie within the abdominal cavity but not within the peritoneal cavity are said to have a
the anterior pit of the elbow is the cubital region and the corresponding (but posterior) pit of the knee is the
If the atomic weight of hydrogen =1 amu and oxygen = 16 amu, what is the molecular weight of water?
Which of the forms of ionizing radiation from a source outside the body is the most dangerous?
determine chemical bonding properties
are electrons of the outermost shell
have a maximum number of eight
Which of the following is INCORRECT?
Isotopes have identical chemical behaviors.
Isotopes have different physical properties
Isotopes have the same atomic weights but different atomic numbers.
Unstable isotopes decay and release radiation.
Isotopes have the same atomic weights but different atomic numbers
The amount of an electrolyte that would neutralize one mole of H+ or OH- is always called
one equivalent (Eq)
One molar solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH-molecular weight 40) would contain one liter of water and how much sodium hydroxide?
When counting items we commonly refer to twelve of something as a dozen. What is the term used to describe Avogadro's number of 6.023 X 10 to the 23rd?
The joining of two glucose molecules, with the subsequent removal of water to form maltose is an example of a
dehydration synthesis reaction
What type of reaction is represented in the following chemical equation? AB->A+B
All of the following are lesser elements in our bodies except:
Which of the following functions is more characteristic of carbohydrates than of proteins?
The feature that most distinguishes a lipid from a carbohydrate is that a lipid has
a lower ratio of oxygen to hydrogen
Any substance that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by it is a
In the human body, enzymes serve this function.
A chemical reaction that joins two organic molecules into a larger one & produces water as a by-product is called
cyclic adenosine monophosphate
chemical derived from ATP and a "second messenger" in cellular signaling
When oxygen is unavailable, cells employ a metabolic pathway called
anaerobic fermentation to produce ATP
simply looking at the body's appearance, as in performing a physical examination or making clinical diagnosis from surface appearance (also involves touching and listening to the body)
feeling a structure with the hands, such as palpating a swollen lymph node or taking a pulse
examiner taps on the body, feels for abnormal resistance, and listens to the emitted sound for signs of abnormalities such as pockets of fluid or air
anatomy and dissection
both mean cutting apart
until the 19th century, dissection was called anatomizing
study of more than one species in order to examine structural similarities and differences and analyze evolutionary trends.
opening the body and taking a look inside to see what was wrong and what could be done about it
medical imaging techniques
methods of viewing the inside of the body without surgery (have replaced a lot of exploratory surgery)
structure that can be seen with the naked eye, whether by surface observation, radiology or dissection
histology (microscopic anatomy)
taking thinly sliced tissue specimens, staining them and observing them under a microscope
the "father of medicine" established a code of ethics for physicians, still recited in modern form by graduating medical students
physician to the Roman gladiators, wrote the most influential medical textbook of the ancient era. Dissected pigs, monkeys and other animals. Warned people that that science was a method of discovery and people should trust their own observations
Jewish rabbi, physician to the sultan, wrote 10 medical books and treatises on specific diseases
Ibn Sina aka Avicenna
wrote The Cannon of Medicine, the leading authority in European medical schools for over 500 years
taught anatomy in Italy, human dissections were started again, first to publish accurate illustrations for teaching anatomy, published the first atlas of anatomy, De Humani Corporis Facrica
studied physiology, blood circulation, book De Motu Cordis (On the Motion of the Heart)
Michael Servetus and William Harvey
the first Western scientists to realize that blood must circulate continuously around the body, from the heart to the other organs and back to the heart again
Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe
improved the compound microscope, adding the condenser and developing superior optics
most important breakthrough in biomedical history, all functions of the body are now interpreted as the effects of cellular activity
refers less to observational procedures than to certain habits of disciplined creativity, careful observation, logical thinking, and honest analysis of one's observations and conclusions.
Bacon and Descartes
argued against biased thinking and for more objectivity in science, echoes of Bacon's philosophy are in the scientific method - they are credited with putting science on the pay to modernity and inventing new habits of scientific thought
Inductive method (Bacon)
process of making numerous observations until one feels confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them.
an investigator begins by asking a question and formulating a hypothesis
A good hypothesis must be:
1. consistent with what is already known
2. capable of being tested and possibly falsified by evidence
if we claim something is scientifically true, we must be able to specify what evidence it would take to prove it wrong. If nothing could possibly prove it wrong, then it is not scientific.
From the hypothesis, a researcher makes a
If my hypothesis on epilepsy is correct then.....
Experiment: Sample Size
An adequate sample size controls for chance events and individual variations in response and puts more confidence in the outcome. (A drug tested on 5,000 people more trustworthy than drug tested on 5 people)
experiments require comparison between treated and untreated individuals so they can judge whether the treatment has effect.
subjects that are as much like the treatment group as possible except with respect to the variable being tested.
Experiment: Psychosomatic effects
Effects of the subject's state of mind on his or her physiology - can have an undesirable effect on experimental results if not controlled. therefore, a placebo is given, and neither group is to know what they are taking
Experiment: Experimenter bias
Experimenters may want result so much that their biases, even subconscious ones, can affect their interpretation of the data. The double blind method helps control this
Experiment: Statistical testing
Scientists use statistical tests applied to the data, like the chi-square test, the t test, or an analysis or variance.
a critical evaluation by other experts in that field. Ensures honesty, objectivity, and quality in science
information that can be independently verified by any trained person (iron deficiency leads to anemia)
a law of nature
a generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave, result of inductive reasoning based on repeated, confirmed observations
the law of complementary base pairing: In the double helix of DNA, a chemical base adenine always pairs with thymine and guanine always pairs with cytosine
law of nature (example)
Boyles law - under specified conditions, the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure
law of nature (example)
explanatory statement of set of statements derived from facts, laws, and confirmed hypothesis
first well supported theory of human evolution, human evolution and features of anatomy and behavior that reveal our relationship to other animals
the principal theory of how evolution works: some individuals within a species have hereditary advantages over their competitors that enable them to produce more offspring. They pass these advantages on to their offspring and the characteristics are more and more common in successive generations. Genetic change is made that constitutes evolution.
natural forces that promote the reproductive success of some individuals more than others (climate, predators, disease, competition, and the availability of food)
features of an organism's anatomy, physiology and behavior that have evolved in response to these selection pressures and enable the organism to cope with the challenges of its environment.
An animal species or strain selected for research on a particular problem (a mouse model for leukemia)
opposable thumb can cross the palm to touch the finger tips and enable primates to hold small objects and manipulate them more precisely than other mammals can.
able to grasp branches by encircling them wit the thumb and fingers (opposable thumbs make the hands prehensile)
depth perception, the eyes of primates moved to a more forward facing position, which allowed for stereoscopic vision. This adaptation provided better hand-eye coordination in catching and manipulating prey, and leaping from tree to tree. Color vision, rare among mammals, is a primate hallmark
Early Homo (genus Homo)
2.5 million years ago, hominids w/ taller stature, greater brain volumes, simple stone tools and probably articulate speech
Evolutionary (darwinian) medicine
traces some of our diseases and imperfections to our evolutionary past
a group of organs with a unique collective function, such as circulation, respiration, or digestion
a structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function
a mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function
the smallest units of an organism that carry out all of the basic functions of life: nothing simpler is considered alive
microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions (i.e. mitochondria, centrioles and lysosomes)
particle composed of at least two atoms (organelles and other cellular components are composed of molecules)
the theory that a large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components (Aristotle)
the complementary theory that there are emergent properties of the whole organism that cannot be predicted from the properties of separate parts-human beings are more than the sum of their parts. (To be most effective, a health care provider treats not merely a disease or an organ system, but a whole person)
human bodies are not all the same internally. Some people lack certain organs. Most have five lumbar vertebrae (bone of the lower spine), but some people have six and some people have four, etc..
the organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities are reversed between right and left
a single organ occupies an atypical position (i.e. a kidney located low in the pelvic cavity instead of high in the abdominal cavity)
Why would it be important for a person with situs inverses to have this noted on a MedicAlert bracelet?
So physicians can correctly diagnose conditions (organs of thoracic and abdominal cavities are reversed)
Living things take in molecules from the environment and chemically change them into molecules that form their own structures, control their physiology or provide them with energy
Responsiveness and movement
the ability of organisms to sense and react to stimuli (changes in their environment) is called responsiveness, irritability or excitability. Responsiveness is evident in animals b/c of nerve and muscle cells
the ability to maintain internal stability even when the environment around an organism changes
1. Differentiation - the transformation of cells with no specialized function into cells that are committed to a particular task
2. Growth - an increase in size
All living species exhibit genetic change from generation to generation and therefore evolve. This occurs because mutations (changes in DNA structure) and inevitable and b/c environmental selection pressures endow some individuals with greater reproductive success than others.
If a textbook states a typical human heart rate, blood pressure, red blood cell count, or body temperature,
it is assumed that such values are for a health young adult unless otherwise stated (reference man and reference woman)
a health male 22 years old, 70kg (154 pounds), living at a temp of 20 degrees Celcius, engaging in light physical activity, and consuming 2,800 kcal per day.
22 year old female, weight of 58kg (128 lb), living at a temp of 20 degrees Celcius, engaging in light physical activity and consuming 2,000 kcal per day
observed that the internal conditions of the body remain quite constant even when external conditions vary greatly.
balanced change, the internal state of the body, in with there is a certain set point or average value for a given variable and conditions fluctuate slightly around this point (i.e. 37 degrees celcius for body temp)
a process in which the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that negate or reverse it (key mechanism to maintaining health)
the widening of the blood vessels. When blood vessels of the skin dilate, warm blood flows closer to the body surface and loses heat to the surrounding air. If this is not enough to return your temp to normal, sweating occurs
a narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin
- serves to retain warm blood deeper in your body and reduce heat loss
-if this is not enough, the brain activates shivering, muscle trimmers that generate heat
sensory nerve endings
When you get out of bed, gravity causes some of your blood to drain away from your head and upper torso, resulting in falling blood pressure in this region, a local imbalance in your homeostasis
-Baroreceptors above heart respond to drop in blood pressure
-Baroreceptors send signals to cardiac center of brainstem
-Cardiac center accelerates heartbeat
-Blood pressure rises to normal & homeostasis is restored
a structure that senses a change in the body (stretch receptors that monitor blood pressure)
integrating (control) center
a mechanism that processes information, relates it other available information, and makes a decision about what the appropriate response should be.
Integrating (control) center examples
cardiac center of the brain or
-comparing what blood pressure is with what it should be and makes a decision what the resonse should be
cell or organ that carries out the final corrective action (ex. restoration of normal blood pressure)
self-amplifying cycle in which a physiolocial change leads to even greater change in the same direction, rather than producting the corrects effects of negative feedback. (ex. giving birth)
can sometimes be harmful or life-threatening process b/c it can change the internal state of the body far from its homeostatic point (high fever)
discovered X-rays, a form of high energy radiation, that can penetrate soft tissues of the body
Disadvantages of radiography
images of overlapping organs can be confusing, slight differences in tissue density are not easily detected, and X-rays can cause mutations leading to cancer and birth defects. Accounts for 1/2 of clinical imaging
Computed Tomography (CT scan)
sophisticated application of X-rays where the patient is moved through a ring-shaped machine that emits low-intensity X-rays on one side and receives them with a detector on the opposite side. An image of a "slice" of the body as thin as a coin is produced to contruct 3-D images of the body.
Advantages of CT scan
Little overlap of organs with 3-D images of body, and image is much sharper than regular X-ray. Requires extensive knowledge of cross-sectional anatomy to interpret images. Useful to identify tumors, aneurysems, cerebral hemorrhages, kidney stones, etc. Almost eliminated expoloratory surgery.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Cylinder chamber surrounded by large electromagnetic field 3,000 to 60,000 times as strong as the earth's. Hydrogen atoms in the tissues align themselves with the magnetic field. The MRI can see clearly through the skull and cpinal colum to produce images of the nervous tissues.
Functional MRI (fMRI)
a varition of MRI that visualizes moment to moment changes in tissue function. These scans of the brain show shifting patterns of activity as the brain applies itself to a specific sensory, mental or motor task. Has replacted the PET for visualizing brain function.
second oldest and most widely used method of imaging. A handheld device held firmly to the skin produces high frequency ultrasound waves and receives the signals that echo back from internal organs.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Sonography
Not useful for examining bones or lungs
Good for obstretrics where the images can be used to locate the placenta and evaulate fetal age, position and development. Avoids the harmful effects of X-rays and equipment is inexpensive and portable. Main disadvantage is that the image is not sharp.
person stands erect, feet flat on floor close together, arms are held downward and spinated, palms and face directed forward
A sagittal plane (aka median or mid-sagittal plane)
passes vertically through the body or an organ and divides it into right and left portions
A frontal (coronal) plane
also extends vertically, but is perpendicular to the sagittal plane and divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.
A frontal section of the head
would divide it into one portion bearing the face and another bearing the back of the head
Contents of the thoracic and abdominal cavities are most commonly shown in the
frontal section (coronal plane)
A transverse (horizonal plane)
passes across the bodyor an organ perpendicular to is long axis, dividing the body or organ into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions
right upper quadrant (RUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), left upper quadrant (RUQ), left lower quadrant (LLQ)
The appendicular region of the body
upper and lower limbs (arm -brachial region, forearm - antebrachial , wrist -carpal, hand - manual region and fingers - digits)
The lower limb includes
thigh - femoral region, leg-crural region, ankle - tarsal region, foot - pedal region, and toes - digits.
segment of a limb
a region between one joint and the next (the arm, is the segment between the shoulder and elbow joints)
During embryonic development, the coeloem space develops within the runk. It becomes partitioned by a muscular sheet, the diaphragm.
the inner layer of the pericardium forms the surface of the heart itself and is called the
The outer layer of the heart (parietal pericardium or pericardial sac)
is separated from the visceral pericardium by a space called the pericardial cavity, that is lubricated by the pericardial fluid.
The narrow space between the visceral pleural and the parietal pleural is called the
-It is lubricated by slippery pleural fluid.
Skin, hair, nails, cutaneous glands
Protection, water retention, temp regulation, vitamin D. synthesis, cutaneous sensation, nonverbal communication
Bones, cartilages, ligaments
Support, movement, protective enclosure of viscera, blood formation, mineral storage, electrolyte and acid-base balance
Movement, stability, communication, control of body openings, heat production
Brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia
Rapid internal communication, coordination, motor control and sensation
Pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, testes, ovaries
Hormone production, internal communication and coordination
factors that affect the rate of diffusion through a membrane include
molecular weight of particle
solution that has lower concentration of non permeating solutes than the intracellular fluid
the nucleus of the cell
is the site of RNA synthesis
is the largest organelle in eukaryotes
has a double membrane
Endoplasmic reticulum can be smooth or rough. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is different from the smooth because it has
ribosomes embedded in it
Membrane phospholipids arrange themselves with their hydrophilic ends toward the _________ of the membrane and their hydrophobic ends toward the ________ of the membrane.
A protein that adheres to the intracellular face of the plasma membrane is called a(n)
are peripheral proteins
are activated by surface receptors.
relay hormone and neurotransmitter stimuli to secondary messengers.
Microvilli are characterized by all of the following except
they appear as a brush border.
B) their primary function is absorption.
C) they have a chloride pump.
D) they increase the surface area of a cell.
they have a chloride pump.
In cystic fibrosis, the cilia become embedded in sticky mucus due to a malfunction of the
When blood pressure in capillaries forces water and dissolved solutes out into the tissue fluid, this is called
The Na+ K+ pump is associated with
resting membrane potential.
antiporters and symporters.
Insulin is removed from the bloodstream by the endothelial cells by which of the following methods?
Where the extracellular fluid is more highly concentrated than the intracellular fluid, we may say it is
By what method can the intestinal cells absorb sodium ions if they are in higher concentration inside the cell?
If one strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence CTTTAT what will the RNA codons be when transcribed?
When a red flower crossed with a white flower produces a pink flower, which of the following is demonstrated?
In compact bone, the delicate canals that extend between one lacunae to another are called
Which of the following tissue types respond quickly to changes in the membrane potential?
If the secretory cells of an exocrine gland form a dilated sac, the gland is called a(n)
Cells that are undifferentiated and have not yet begun to perform specialized functions are known as
The material that lies between an epithelium and its underlying connective tissue is called
Which of the following is a description of a tight junction?
pattern of complementary grooves and ridges in the membranes of two adjacent cells
If the secretory cells of an exocrine gland form a dilated sac, the gland is called a(n)
What is formed in an immobilized person when continuous pressure on the skin cuts off the blood flow to an area?
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