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the process of transferring information and meaning between senders and receivers using one or more written, oral, visual or electronic channels

internal communication

takes place between people inside a company

external communication

takes place between a company and outside parties

formal communication network

ideas and information flow along the lines of command in the company's organization structure

upward communication

flows from employees to executives; solves problems and make intelligent decisions

horizontal communication

flows between department to help employees share information, coordinate tasks, and solve complex problems


reach across international borders to market their products, partner with other businesses, and employ workers/executives

workforce diversity

differences among people who work together (age, gender, religion, ability)

8 steps of communication process

1. Sender has an idea
2. sender encodes idea in a message
3. sender produces message in a medium
4. sender transmits the message through a channel
5. audience receives the message
6. audience decodes the message
7. audience responds to the message
8. audience provides feedback


putting an idea into a message


extracting an idea from the message

communication barriers

block or distort messages before they reach the intended audience

"you" attitude

understand/respect the members of your audience and make every effort to get your message across in a meaningful way

emotional intelligence

ability to relate to the needs of others


a unit of two or more people who share a mission and the responsibility for achieving a goal

advantages of teams

-increased info/knowledge
-increased diversity of views
-increased acceptance of a solution
-higher performance

disadvantages of teams

-hidden agendas

effective teams

-clear sense of purpose
-open/honest communication
-effective conflict resolution

group dynamics

interactions and processes that take place in a team

phases of group development

1. orientation
2. conflict
3. brainstorming
4. emergence
5. reinforcement

critical listening

understand/evaluate the meaning of the speaker's message on several levels

content listening

understand and retain the speakers message

empathetic listening

understand the speaker's feelings, needs, and wants so you can appreciate their point of view, regardless of yours

active listening

making a concise effort to turn off their own filters and biases to truly hear and understand

selective listening

remembering what you think the speaker said vs. what was actually said

listening process

1. receiving
2. decoding
3. remembering
4. evaluating
5. responding

non verbal communication

interpersonal process of sending and receiving information with any spoken language (facial expression, gesture/posture, vocal characteristics, personal appearance, touch)

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