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Bony abdomen

Comprised of the pelvis and the lower vertebral column

Lower vertebral column

Includes the lumbar spine, sacrum, and coccyx

Iliac crest

Upper curved boder of the illium

Iliac crest

Lies at the level of the disc between L-4 and L-5


Separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities


Controlled by breathing; important to be in highest position for abdominal radiography (expiration)

Psoas muscles

Form much of the posterior wall of the abdomen on each side of the vertebral column; pair

Psoas muscles

Should see outline of _____ _______ on properly exposed abdominal radiograph

Primary digestive system

Mouth and pharynx, part of

Primary digestive system

Esophagus and stomach, part of

Primary digestive system

Large and small intestine, part of

Accessory digestive system

Teeth and sailvary glands, part of

Accessory digestive system

Liver, pancreas, gall bladder, part of

Peritoneal Sac

Double walled sac that encloses the abdominal cavity

Parietal layer

Adheres to the abdominal and greater pelvic walls and undersurface of the diaphragm

Visceral layer

Adheres to the organs in folds called mesentery and omenta

Peritoneal cavity

Narrow space between layers of the peritoneum


Has two main openings, the cardiac orifice and the pyloric orifice

Cardiac orifice

Opening between esophagus and stomach

Pyloric orifice

Opening between distal stomach and small intestines


Has three main subdivisions, the fundus, body, and pyloric antrum (portion)


Upper portion of the stomach that usually contains air


Main portion of the stomach; lies between fundus and pyloric portion

Pyloric antrum

Terminal portion of the stomach just prior to the pyloric orifice

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