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What are the 5 CRJ models?

consensus, conflict, crime control, adversarial, due process

Consensus Model

all CRJ agencies work together to find the truth

Conflict Model

CRJ agencies work against each other; serving self-interest

Crime Control Model

CRJ is there to punish and repress criminal conduct

Adversarial System Model

2 sided system that puts prosecution vs. defense; whomever presents the best story wins.

Due Process Model

Gov't has to follow certain procedures and protect your rights

CRJ models used in the US

due process, adversarial, conflict (serve self-interest)

Social Justice

notion of what's right and fair

Criminal Justice

it's all about what the law says

the 3 main institutions of justice

policing, courts, corrections

3 goals of CRJ

control crime, prevent crime, provide & maintain order

NCVS stand for

National Crime Victimization Survey

NCVS is compiled by

volunteering victims and the DOJ

Never found in NCVS

murder and arson

UCR stands for

Uniform Crime Report

UCR is compiled by

volunteering police and the FBI

how many Part 1 crimes there are


List the 4 violent crimes of Pt. 1 crimes

murder, robbery, rape, assault

List the 4 property crimes of Pt. 1 crimes

burglary, larceny, MVT, arson

Murder is most often accomplished by


Rape is most often accomplished by


The least reported Pt. 1 violent crime


Robbery is most often accomplished by


Assaults are most often accomplished by

strangers because they are spontaneous; blunt objects used

Pt. 1 crime (violent and property alike) that has the lowest clearance, or arrest, rate



most frequent (NOTE: this is all my notes said)

Arson can only be reported by

the fire chief

Burglary becomes robbery when

you are a threat within the person's personal space

An example of a situational crime precaution


example of incapacitation


ex. of formal social control

house arrest/ fines

ex. of informal incapacitation

grounding/social ostracism

assault is always associated with

murder, rape, robbery

mass murderer

4+ at one time

serial killer

3 at different times


violation of the law

criminal (2 ex.)

adults who violate the law (murder, arson)

delinquent (2 ex.)

minors who violate law (murder, arson)

status offenders (2 ex.l)

minors who violate minor age based laws

deviants (2 ex.)

people who violate social norms


a crime less serious than a felony


a serious crime (such as murder or arson)

victimless crime (2 ex.)

an act that is legally a crime but that seem to have no victims (prostitution, illegal gambling)

white collar crime (2 ex)

non-violent, business related (hacking, embezzlement)

environmental crime (2 ex.)

wrongful act against the environment (littering, poaching, dumping)

simple crime

speeding, stealing ornaments/cds

Kansas Police Experiment

more cops do NOT reduce crime or fear of crime

Minneapolis/St. Paul Experiment

focused on domestic violence; arresting someone reduces repeat calls (3 groups: take a walk, social work, arrest)

Robert Merton

coined the phrase "self-fulfilling prophecy"

Denial of responsibility

"they deserved it"

Twinkie defense

a man charged with two murders said he had been eating too much junk food, and the sugars and additives in the food deepended his depression and he was unable to tell right from wrong

social controls

families, church, and gov't

social capital

social status, connections, power

general deterrence

A crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties. (public) ex. death penalty/hanging/stoning

specific deterrence

criminal sanctions should be so powerful that offenders will never repeat their criminal acts (private) ex. house arrest/?

Cesare Beccaria

associated with classical school

"Severe, Swift, Certain"

Cesare Beccaria believed that punishment needs to be

Classical School Theory

free will/choice

Biological/Trait Theory

born criminal

Psychological Trait Theory

Freud said there are 3 elements of the mind: conscious, preconscious, and unconscious.

Social Structure Theory

society is to blame

Social Process Theory

crime is learned

Conflict Theory

crimes is based on power


think they're going crazy


are crazy


seeing and hearing things


apathetic, no remorse, no fear

substance abuse

54% were under the influence at the time of crime

where is crime the highest

south and west


+,+ accept goals and means


+,- they want the goals but find alternative means


-,+ not really into the goals of the "American Dream" but will still go to college and have the 9 to 5 job


-,- (hippies) not into the goals, go through their own motions


+-,+- reject society and goals but still live among society and try to change it

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