74 terms

Criminal Justice Exam 1

What are the 5 CRJ models?
consensus, conflict, crime control, adversarial, due process
Consensus Model
all CRJ agencies work together to find the truth
Conflict Model
CRJ agencies work against each other; serving self-interest
Crime Control Model
CRJ is there to punish and repress criminal conduct
Adversarial System Model
2 sided system that puts prosecution vs. defense; whomever presents the best story wins.
Due Process Model
Gov't has to follow certain procedures and protect your rights
CRJ models used in the US
due process, adversarial, conflict (serve self-interest)
Social Justice
notion of what's right and fair
Criminal Justice
it's all about what the law says
the 3 main institutions of justice
policing, courts, corrections
3 goals of CRJ
control crime, prevent crime, provide & maintain order
NCVS stand for
National Crime Victimization Survey
NCVS is compiled by
volunteering victims and the DOJ
Never found in NCVS
murder and arson
UCR stands for
Uniform Crime Report
UCR is compiled by
volunteering police and the FBI
how many Part 1 crimes there are
List the 4 violent crimes of Pt. 1 crimes
murder, robbery, rape, assault
List the 4 property crimes of Pt. 1 crimes
burglary, larceny, MVT, arson
Murder is most often accomplished by
Rape is most often accomplished by
The least reported Pt. 1 violent crime
Robbery is most often accomplished by
Assaults are most often accomplished by
strangers because they are spontaneous; blunt objects used
Pt. 1 crime (violent and property alike) that has the lowest clearance, or arrest, rate
most frequent (NOTE: this is all my notes said)
Arson can only be reported by
the fire chief
Burglary becomes robbery when
you are a threat within the person's personal space
An example of a situational crime precaution
example of incapacitation
ex. of formal social control
house arrest/ fines
ex. of informal incapacitation
grounding/social ostracism
assault is always associated with
murder, rape, robbery
mass murderer
4+ at one time
serial killer
3 at different times
violation of the law
criminal (2 ex.)
adults who violate the law (murder, arson)
delinquent (2 ex.)
minors who violate law (murder, arson)
status offenders (2 ex.l)
minors who violate minor age based laws
deviants (2 ex.)
people who violate social norms
a crime less serious than a felony
a serious crime (such as murder or arson)
victimless crime (2 ex.)
an act that is legally a crime but that seem to have no victims (prostitution, illegal gambling)
white collar crime (2 ex)
non-violent, business related (hacking, embezzlement)
environmental crime (2 ex.)
wrongful act against the environment (littering, poaching, dumping)
simple crime
speeding, stealing ornaments/cds
Kansas Police Experiment
more cops do NOT reduce crime or fear of crime
Minneapolis/St. Paul Experiment
focused on domestic violence; arresting someone reduces repeat calls (3 groups: take a walk, social work, arrest)
Robert Merton
coined the phrase "self-fulfilling prophecy"
Denial of responsibility
"they deserved it"
Twinkie defense
a man charged with two murders said he had been eating too much junk food, and the sugars and additives in the food deepended his depression and he was unable to tell right from wrong
social controls
families, church, and gov't
social capital
social status, connections, power
general deterrence
A crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties. (public) ex. death penalty/hanging/stoning
specific deterrence
criminal sanctions should be so powerful that offenders will never repeat their criminal acts (private) ex. house arrest/?
Cesare Beccaria
associated with classical school
"Severe, Swift, Certain"
Cesare Beccaria believed that punishment needs to be
Classical School Theory
free will/choice
Biological/Trait Theory
born criminal
Psychological Trait Theory
Freud said there are 3 elements of the mind: conscious, preconscious, and unconscious.
Social Structure Theory
society is to blame
Social Process Theory
crime is learned
Conflict Theory
crimes is based on power
think they're going crazy
are crazy
seeing and hearing things
apathetic, no remorse, no fear
substance abuse
54% were under the influence at the time of crime
where is crime the highest
south and west
+,+ accept goals and means
+,- they want the goals but find alternative means
-,+ not really into the goals of the "American Dream" but will still go to college and have the 9 to 5 job
-,- (hippies) not into the goals, go through their own motions
+-,+- reject society and goals but still live among society and try to change it