42 terms

World History 23A

Iron Curtain
came to symbolize the split between the Communist world & the free world
Cold War
4 decades of apprehension, hostility, & competition between the Soviet Union & the US with no open combat
communist motives for expansion
1) fear of the West, 2) zeal for their ideology, 3) desire for power
soviet expansionist policies
1) create a buffer zone between the Soviet Union & the US {Germany had invaded twice & France once} 2) provide raw materials to help rebuild the economy
established a Communist government in Yugoslavia apart from Stalin
____ & ____ both try revolting
Hungary & Czechoslovakia both try revolting
Truman Doctrine
US would support any country threatened by Communist aggression (took effect in Greece & Turkey)
major objective of American foreign policy during the Cold War
Marshall Plan (European Recovery Act)
provided massive economic assistance for war-ravaged Europe ($5.3 billion), {stop the advance of communism, created strong trade partners}
West Germany & Berlin
Allies occupied, airlift of food & supplies to Berlin
East Germany & Berlin
Soviet controlled
(North Atlantic Treaty Organization), a regional military alliance
Warsaw Pact
regional Soviet military alliance including Eastern European states (made in response to NATO)
arms race
Soviets & Americans increased their peacetime production of nuclear & conventional weapons (led to the development of the H-bomb, it destroyed an Elugelab Island when it was tested)
Mao & Chiang fight for China
US aids the Nationals, Communism won, Chiang is forced to Taiwan
Korean War
(1950-53), Communist North Korea invaded free South Korea
General MacArthur
led UN forces that drove the enemy across the 38th Parallel, assault at Inchon, Chinese Communists help the North
Vietnam War
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese communist who declared his country's independence from France
Battle of Dien Bien Phu
Communists annihilated a major French army
17th Parallel
divided Vietnam into 2 parts: North = Communist, South = Free
Viet Cong
Communist guerillas
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
Domino Theory
if Vietnam fell, then other Asian countries would also fall to Communism
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
authorized President Johnson to take necessary measures to repel any armed attack (North Vietnamese fired at us)
Tet (New Year's) Offensive
Viet Cong demonstrated surprising strength, led many Americans to be against the conflict
turned the burden of fighting over to the South Vietnamese people, proved the domino theory true & was America's biggest failure of the Cold War
Fidel Castro
Communist dictator in Cuba
Bay of Pigs
President Kennedy aborted American support of a mission to oust Castro
new leader of the Soviet Union after Stalin
"Peaceful Coexistence"
time to agree to disagree without fighting: doesn't last
1st man-made earth satellite, launched by Russia, causes America to push science & math in schools
U-2 Incident
American spy plane shot down over Russia
Berlin Wall
most recognizable symbol of the Cold War
Cuban Missile Crisis
Soviets install nuclear missiles in Cuba, President Kennedy orders a blockade around Cuba
President ______ visits Communist China
President Nixon visits Communist China
relaxation of tensions with both China & the Soviet Union
Strategic Arms Limitations Talk, limited nuclear weapons
Ronald Reagan
determined to restore America's prestige
Strategic Defense Initiative, aka "Star Wars"
"evil empire"
Soviet Union = "evil empire"
established perestroika - "restructuring", a wide range of social, political, & economic reforms