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Iron Curtain

came to symbolize the split between the Communist world & the free world

Cold War

4 decades of apprehension, hostility, & competition between the Soviet Union & the US with no open combat

communist motives for expansion

1) fear of the West, 2) zeal for their ideology, 3) desire for power

soviet expansionist policies

1) create a buffer zone between the Soviet Union & the US {Germany had invaded twice & France once} 2) provide raw materials to help rebuild the economy


established a Communist government in Yugoslavia apart from Stalin

____ & ____ both try revolting

Hungary & Czechoslovakia both try revolting

Truman Doctrine

US would support any country threatened by Communist aggression (took effect in Greece & Turkey)


major objective of American foreign policy during the Cold War

Marshall Plan (European Recovery Act)

provided massive economic assistance for war-ravaged Europe ($5.3 billion), {stop the advance of communism, created strong trade partners}

West Germany & Berlin

Allies occupied, airlift of food & supplies to Berlin

East Germany & Berlin

Soviet controlled


(North Atlantic Treaty Organization), a regional military alliance

Warsaw Pact

regional Soviet military alliance including Eastern European states (made in response to NATO)

arms race

Soviets & Americans increased their peacetime production of nuclear & conventional weapons (led to the development of the H-bomb, it destroyed an Elugelab Island when it was tested)

Mao & Chiang fight for China

US aids the Nationals, Communism won, Chiang is forced to Taiwan

Korean War

(1950-53), Communist North Korea invaded free South Korea

General MacArthur

led UN forces that drove the enemy across the 38th Parallel, assault at Inchon, Chinese Communists help the North

Vietnam War


Ho Chi Minh

Vietnamese communist who declared his country's independence from France

Battle of Dien Bien Phu

Communists annihilated a major French army

17th Parallel

divided Vietnam into 2 parts: North = Communist, South = Free

Viet Cong

Communist guerillas


Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

Domino Theory

if Vietnam fell, then other Asian countries would also fall to Communism

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

authorized President Johnson to take necessary measures to repel any armed attack (North Vietnamese fired at us)

Tet (New Year's) Offensive

Viet Cong demonstrated surprising strength, led many Americans to be against the conflict


turned the burden of fighting over to the South Vietnamese people, proved the domino theory true & was America's biggest failure of the Cold War

Fidel Castro

Communist dictator in Cuba

Bay of Pigs

President Kennedy aborted American support of a mission to oust Castro


new leader of the Soviet Union after Stalin

"Peaceful Coexistence"

time to agree to disagree without fighting: doesn't last


1st man-made earth satellite, launched by Russia, causes America to push science & math in schools

U-2 Incident

American spy plane shot down over Russia

Berlin Wall

most recognizable symbol of the Cold War

Cuban Missile Crisis

Soviets install nuclear missiles in Cuba, President Kennedy orders a blockade around Cuba

President ______ visits Communist China

President Nixon visits Communist China


relaxation of tensions with both China & the Soviet Union


Strategic Arms Limitations Talk, limited nuclear weapons

Ronald Reagan

determined to restore America's prestige


Strategic Defense Initiative, aka "Star Wars"

"evil empire"

Soviet Union = "evil empire"


established perestroika - "restructuring", a wide range of social, political, & economic reforms

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