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World in Crisis FINAL EXAM
Terms in this set (108)
North-South Axis/First World -Third World Axis
Millennium Development Goals
UN targets for basic needs measure such as reducing poverty and hunger, adpoted in 2000, with a target date of 2015. Specifically focusing on these 8 goals: eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, achieving universal primary education, promoting gender equality and empowering women reducing child mortality rates,
improving maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability, and developing a global partnership for development.
Some countries are benefitting from these programs and some are not due to resources and lack of resources.
NAFTA and other Free Trade Agreements
is an agreement signed by the US governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America. The agreement came into force on January 1, 1994. Largest trade bloc in the world in terms of GDP. The agreement opened trade, ended tariffs on various goods and services, allows agricultural to travel freely, and implenmented equality between each member state.
Haiti and Disney
Many Haitians are able to work for very little pay and therefore other companies take advantage of them. Haitian workers are paid as little as 50 cents an hour to produce $20 dollar tshirts. Many Haitians cannot even afford to survive or live off their wages, but cannot complain because disney will fire them or take their services elsewhere.
IMF Loans and LDC Debt Crisis
IMF conditionality-an agreement to loan IMF funds on the condition that certain government policies are adapted. Dozens of third world states have entered into such agreements with the IMF in the past two decades.
LDC-The world's poorest regions-the global south-where most people live, also called underveloped countries or developing countries.
UNCTAD and the NIEO
United Conference on Trade and Development-a structure established in 1964 to promote third world development through various trade proposals.
New International Economic Order- a set of proposals put forward during the 1970s by some developing countries through the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development to promote their interests by improving their terms of trade, increasing development assistance, developed-country tariff reductions, and other means. It was meant to be a revision of the international economic system in favour of Third World countries, replacing the Bretton Woods system, which had benefited the leading states that had created it-especially the United States.
Power: Nature of; urge for; cost of;characteristics/elements of; estimating
is the perveived amount of power one person or entity has in relation to another person or entity. Its a term applied to international relations theory. Some Scholars argue that states compete for relative power while others argue that states compete for absolute power. It is my belief that states are primarily concerned with relative power, that is, how much power a particular state has in relation to another.
power measured in comparison with the power of other international actors.
the ability of a country to get what it wants in international affairs through the attractiveness of its culture, political ideals, and policies.
does not use force or money, but is seen to be attractive to others.
Coercive power that is backed up by economic and military force.
RELIES HEAVILY ON MILITARY. can be compared to soft power.
The use of geography as an element of power, and the ideas about it held by political leaders and scholars.
A state of open, armed, often prolonged conflict carried on between nations, states, or parties.
A reciprocal process in which two or more states build up military capabilites in response to one another. Think the Soviet Union and the United States.
is the name of a potential multilateral treaty that would regulate the international trade in conventional weapons. The treaty will be negotiated at a global conference under the auspices of the United Nations from 2 - 27 July 2012 in New York.
Arms control is an umbrella term for restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation, and usage of weapons, especially weapons of mass destruction. Arms control is typically exercised through the use of diplomacy which seeks to impose such limitations upon consenting participants through international treaties and agreements, although it may also comprise efforts by a nation or group of nations to enforce limitations upon a non-consenting country.
Barriers to Arms Control
World Arms Spiral
MAD-Mutually Assured Destruction
is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of high-yield weapons of mass destruction by two opposing sides would effectively result in the complete, utter and irrevocable annihilation of both the attacker and the defender, becoming thus a war that has no victory nor any armistice but only effective reciprocal destruction. It is based on the theory of deterrence according to which the deployment, and implicit menace of use, of strong weapons is essential to threaten the enemy in order to prevent the use by said-enemy of the same weapons against oneself.
Strategic Defense Initiative-U.S. government program responsible for research and development of a space-based system to defend the nation from attack by strategic ballistic missiles (see guided missile). The program is now administered by the Missile Defense Agency (originally the Strategic Defense Initiative Office), a separate agency in the U.S. Dept. of Defense. SDI, popularly referred to as "Star Wars," was announced by President Ronald Reagan in a speech in Mar., 1983, and was derided by his critics as unrealistic.
1st Strike Capability/2nd Strike Capability
U.S. government program responsible for research and development of a space-based system to defend the nation from attack by strategic ballistic missiles (see guided missile). The program is now administered by the Missile Defense Agency (originally the Strategic Defense Initiative Office), a separate agency in the U.S. Dept. of Defense. SDI, popularly referred to as "Star Wars," was announced by President Ronald Reagan in a speech in Mar., 1983, and was derided by his critics as unrealistic.
weapon of mass destruction-is a weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans (and other life forms) and/or cause great damage to man-made structures (e.g. buildings), natural structures (e.g. mountains), or the biosphere in general.
Chemical and Biological Weapons
the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war. Biological weapons (often termed "bio-weapons" or "bio-agents") are living organisms or replicating entities (viruses) that reproduce or replicate within their host victims.
Amassing and Measuring Military Power
The threat to punish another actor if it takes a certain negative action (especially attacking ones own state or ones allies)
see also mutually assured destruction
Warefare by one state waged to conquer and occupy another; modern total war organized in the Napoleonic Wars, which relied on conscription on a mass scale.
Military actions that seek objectives short of the surrender and occupation of the enemy.
Civil (fighting over control) or revolution (overthrowing)
Warfare without front lines and with irregular forces operating in the midst of, and often hidden or protected by, civilian populations.
French for "blow against the state" a term that refers to the seizure of political power by domestic military forces-that is, a change of political power outside the states constitutional order.
Nuclear Warfare/Nuclear Terrorism
is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on an opponent. Compared to conventional warfare, nuclear warfare can be vastly more destructive in range and extent of damage, and in a much shorter time scale.
The use of terrorist groups by states, usually under control of a states intelligance agency, to achieve political aims.
generally refer to weapons that are in relatively wide use that are not weapons of mass destruction, such as nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. Conventional weapons include small arms and light weapons, sea and land mines, as well as (non-nuclear) bombs, shells, rockets, missiles and cluster munitions. These weapons use explosive material based on chemical energy, as opposed to nuclear energy in nuclear weapons.
is the phenomenon of something getting more intense step by step, for example a quarrel, or, notably, a war between states possessing weapons of mass destruction
Limited Nuclear-Biological-Chemical War (NBC)
Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) a treaty that created a framework for controlling the spread of nuclear materials and expertise; including the international atomic energy agency, a UN agency based in Vienna that is charged with inspecting the nuclear power industry in NPT member states to prevent secret military diversions of nuclear materials.
SALT I/II/Start I/II
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty-refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union—the Cold War superpowers—on the issue of armament control. There were two rounds of talks and agreements: SALT I and SALT II.
Chemical Weapons Convention; the 1919 Versailles treaty says Germany can't use Chemical Weapons; 1925 Geneva Convention also addressed asphyxiating gases, poisons etc. The Organization for the Prevention of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is charged by the UN and international treaty with management of the CWC. OPCW Member States already represent about 98% of the global population and landmass, as well as 98% of the worldwide chemical industry. Prohibited use of the CWs covered in the Chemical Weapons Convention. 188 countries signed as of March 2009
Comprehensive test ban treaty. It was a proposed agreement to ban nuclear testing. President Clinton did not sign it.
bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes. It was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996 but it has not entered into force as of 2012.
Limited success was achieved with the signing of the Partial Test Ban Treaty in 1963, which banned nuclear tests in the atmosphere, underwater and in space. Neither France nor China signed the PTBT. However, the treaty was still ratified by the United States after a 80 to 19 vote in the United States Senate.
International Atomic Energy Agency; responsible for monitoring global nuclear activities.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons. The IAEA was established as an autonomous organization on 29 July 1957. Though established independently of the United Nations through its own international treaty, the IAEA Statute, the IAEA reports to both the UN General Assembly and Security Council.
the belief that all international disputes can be settled by arbitration.
The belief that war and violence are unjustifiable under any circumstances, and that all disputes should be settled by peaceful means.
The refusal to participate in war or military service because of such a belief.
Strategic Nuclear War
The profession, activity, or skill of managing international relations, typically by a country's representatives abroad.
The art of dealing with people in a sensitive and effective way.
meaning an official document, which in turn derives from the Greek, meaning a folded paper/document) is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to issues of peace-making, trade, war, economics, culture, environment and human rights.
Laws of Diplomacy
is that area of international law that governs permanent and temporary diplomatic missions. A fundamental concept of diplomatic law is that of diplomatic immunity, which derives from state immunity.
Just War Theory/Doctrine
A category in international law and political theory that defines when wars can be justly started and how they can be justly fought.
A privilage under which diplomatic activities fall outside the jurisdiction of the host countrys national courts.
International Court of Justice-the judicial arem of the UN; located in the Hague; it hears only cases between states.
UN General Assembly
A body composed of representatives of all states that allocated UN funds, passes nonbinding resolutions, and coordinates third world development programs and various autonomous agencies through the Economic and Social Council.
UN Security Council
A body of five great powers (which can veto resolutions) and ten rotating member states that make decisions about international peave and security including the dispatch of UN peacekeeping forces.
UN PKO's/Blue Helemets
is an activity that aims to create the conditions for lasting peace. It is distinguished from both peacebuilding and peacemaking.
Peacekeepers monitor and observe peace processes in post-conflict areas and assist ex-combatants in implementing the peace agreements they may have signed. Such assistance comes in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development.
The UN's executive branch, led by the secretary-general.
First conference of world leaders, convened by the UN to address the problem of climate change. Established the "Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC)."
A term critical of U.S. dominance of the emerging global culture.
The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development.
Using natural resources at a rate that does not deplet them.
Violations of the law governing the conduct of warfare; such as by mistreating prisoners of war or unneccessairly targeting civilians.
War Crimes Tribunals (Nuremberg, Tokyo, The Hague)
International war crimes tribunals are courts of law established to try individuals accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity.
Tribunals have almost entirely replaced retributive justice's summary executions. Based on generally agreed-upon international standards of acceptable human behavior, they have introduced a new ethos of liberal legalism for dealing with war crimes.
Crimes Against Humanity
are particularly odious offenses in that they constitute a serious attack on human dignity or grave humiliation or a degradation of one or more human beings. They are not isolated or sporadic events, but are part either of a government policy (although the perpetrators need not identify themselves with this policy) or of a wide practice of atrocities tolerated or condoned by a government or a de facto authority.
Prisoners of War-Soldiers who have surrendered and who thereby recieve special status under the laws of war.
a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Models of Foreign Policy Decision Making
Basic Human Rights
The fundamental needs of people for adequate food, shelter, health care, sanitaiton, and education. Meeting such needs may be though of as both a moral imperative and a form of investment in "human capital" essential for economic growth.
Global Food Crisis
prices doubled in 2008, poor countries were already spending over half of income on food. Over 1.6 billion are starving.
Global Warming/Climate Change
A slow, long-term rise in the average world temperature caused by the emission of greenhouse gases produced by burning fossils fuels-oil, coal, and nautral gas.
The tremendous diversity of plant and animal species making up the earth's (global, regional, and local) ecosystems.
Petroleum and IR
Humand Rights and Women
The rights of all people to be free from abuses such as torture or imprisonment for their political beliefs political and civil rights and to enjoy certain minimum economic and social protections.
involves an act of recruiting, transporting, transfering, harbouring or receiving a person through a use of force, coercion or other means, for the purpose of exploiting them. Every year, thousands of men, women and children fall into the hands of traffickers, in their own countries and abroad.
Concealed explosive devices, often left behind by irregualr armies, that kill or maim civilians after wars end. Such mines number more than 100 million, primarily in Angola, Bosnia, Afghanistan, and Cambodia. A movement to ban land mines in underway; nearly 100 states have agreed to do so.
the attempt of a country to entirely monopolize its energy resources. You could call it protectionsim in the form of energy indpendence.
A meeting between heads of state, often referring to leaders of great powers, as in the Cold War superpower summits between the United States and the Soviet Union or today's meetings of the group of eight on economic coordination.
The Gender Gap
Refers to polls showing women lower than men on average in their support for military actions, as well as for various other issues and candidates.
IGO's, Expansion of Group Psychology and Groupthink
An organization, such as the United Nations and its agencies whose members are state governments.
The loss of the best and brightest people to other countries.
is the large-scale emigration of a large group of individuals with technical skills or knowledge. The reasons usually include two aspects which respectively come from countries and individuals. In terms of countries, the reasons may be social environment (in source countries: lack of opportunities, political instability, economic depression, health risks, etc.; in host countries: rich opportunities, political stability and freedom, developed economy, better living conditions, etc.).
People fleeting their countries to find refuge from war, natural disaster, or political persecution. International law distinguishes then from migrants.
HIV/AIDS in South/LDC's
A big problem!
Sources of International Law
the materials and processes out of which the rules and principles regulating the international community are developed. They have been influenced by a range of political and legal theories. During the 19th century, it was recognised by legal positivists that a sovereign could limit its authority to act by consenting to an agreement according to the principle pacta sunt servanda. This consensual view of international law was reflected in the 1920 Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice, and preserved in Article 38(1) of the 1946 Statute of the International Court of Justice.
The increase in the number of humans living on earth. This increase has been happening at an alarming rate for the past 150 or so years. It also tends to make all other environmental problems even worse.
An intentional and systematic attempt to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, in whole or part. It was confirmed as a crime under international law by the UN Genocide Convention.
Democratic Peace Theory
The proposition, strongly supported by empircal evidence, that democracies almost never fight wars against each other (although they do fight against authoritarian states).
The acquisition of colonies by conquest or otherwise. Lenin's theory of imperialism argued that European capitalists were investing in colonies where they could ear big profits, and then using part of those profits to buy off portions of the working class at home.
refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europe's powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the 19th and early 20th centuries; expansion took place from the French conquest of Algeria until World War I: approximately 1830 to 1914. The period is distinguished by an unprecedented pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions.
A form of nationalism whose goal is to regain territory lost to another state; it can lead directly to violent interstate conflicts.
Religion and War/Conflict
the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature.
The advocacy or practice of separation of a certain group of people from a larger body on the basis of ethnicity, religion, or gender.
Military Industrial Complex
A huge interlocking network of governmental agencies, industrial corporations, and research institues, all working together to promote and benefit from military spending.
is a global illicit trade involving the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of substances which are subject to drug prohibition laws. UNODC is continuously monitoring and researching global illicit drug markets in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of their dynamics. Drug trafficking is a key part of this research. Further information can be found in the yearly World Drug Report
Individuals and International Law
Individuals and their Impact
An organization based in Geneva that provides technical assistance to improve health conditions in the third world and conducts major immunization campaigns.
shrinking of forests
Water scarcity is both a natural and a human-made phenomenon. There is enough freshwater on the planet for six billion people but it is distributed unevenly and too much of it is wasted, polluted and unsustainably managed.
Occurs when natural or human-induced processes decrease the future ability of land to support crops, livestock, or wild species.
Avian Flu Threat
A highly pathogenic strain of avian
influenza called H5N1 has caused
mortality in over 40 species of wild
birds including herons, storks and
falcons in Asia. Millions of domestic
poultry have either died or been culled
in Asia because of outbreaks of highly
pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).
a network of Islamic terrorist organizations, led by Osama bin Laden, that carried out the attacks on the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, and the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001
Global Jihad means (betraying god in Islam) Even if you're a Muslim and you betrayed god you will get punished by god.
Islam and the World
A broad and diverse world religion whose divergent populations include Sunni Muslims, Shi'ite Muslims, and many smaller branches and sects from Nigeria to Indonesia, centered in the Middle East and South Asia.
Sudan/Crisis in Darfur
was a guerrilla conflict or civil war centered on the Darfur region of Sudan. It began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) groups in Darfur took up arms, accusing the Sudanese government of oppressing non-Arab Sudanese in favor of Sudanese Arabs. It is also known as the Darfur Genocide.
One side of the conflict was composed mainly of the official Sudanese military and police, and the Janjaweed, a Sudanese militia group recruited mostly from the Arab Abbala tribes of the northern Rizeigat region in Sudan; these tribes are mainly camel-herding nomads. The other combatants are made up of rebel groups, notably the SLM/A and the JEM, recruited primarily from the non-Arab Muslim Fur, Zaghawa, and Masalit ethnic groups. Although the Sudanese government publicly denies that it supports the Janjaweed, it has been providing financial assistance and weapons to the militia and has been organizing joint attacks targeting civilians. The Sudanese government uses oil revenues to fund a military capacity that is in turn used to conduct war in Darfur. Oil revenues collected from companies around the world fund the civil war as well as violations of international human rights and humanitarian law. Sudan's oil wealth has played a major part in enabling an otherwise poor government to fund the expensive bombers, helicopters and arms supplies which have allowed the Sudanese government to launch aerial attacks on towns and villages and fund militias to fight its proxy war in Darfur.
an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between April 1992 and December 1995. The war involved several sides. The main belligerents were the attacking forces of the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb and Bosnian Croat entities within Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia, who were led and supplied by Serbia and Croatia respectively, and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Middle East Tensions/Arab Spring
Literally means Arabic Rebellions-is a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Arab world that began on Friday, 17 December 2010. To date, rulers have been forced from power in Tunisia,Egypt,Libya,and Yemen;civil uprisings have erupted in Bahrain and Syria; major protests have broken out in Algeria, Iraq,Jordan,Kuwait,Morocco,and Oman;and minor protests have occurred in Lebanon,Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, Sudan,and Western Sahara. Clashes at the borders of Israel in May 2011,as well as protests by the Arab minority in Iranian Khuzestan and a rebellion in Mali have also been inspired by the regional Arab Spring, while the Malian coup d'état has been described as "fallout".
is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert.
The government of Sierra Leone is not much different from ours in structure. However, they are having some difficulties running their country. The government is a democracy based on a constitution. So is America's. The legal system is based on the British system; America's is too. We have the same 3 branches of governement: executive, judicial, and legislative.
Even though they are trying to do pretty much the same things as our government, Sierra Leone's government is having a hard time controlling some people in their country. Some people might call Sierra Leone "fragile." For the past 8 years a civil war has been going on. There was a military takeover in 1992, and thousands of people have been maimed by a terrorist group that opposes the government. Even children have had hands and arms cut off!
To make matters worse, Liberia, the country right nest to Sierra Leone, is having an internal war. The refugees from Liberia are coming over into Sierra Leone to hide. The people of Sierra Leone don't yet know what the outcome will be of the hiding refugees, but it is adding a burden on Sierra Leone.
The basic needs of the people of Sierra Leone are similar to the needs of people worldwide. These include: food, clothing, and shelter. Most working people work in the agricultural field, growing food for themselves and their country. However, there is not much good land for farming. Since Sierra Leone is on the ocean, fish is plentiful and is the main food source. Even so, Sierra Leone must import food because the food they grow isn't enough to feed everybody. Other objects that are imported by Sierra Leone are: machinery, equipment, fuels, and lubricants
is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
With an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres (700,000 sq mi), Libya is the third largest country in Africa by area, and the 17th largest in the world.The largest city, Tripoli, is home to 1.7 million of Libya's 6.4 million people. The three traditional parts of the country are Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica.
Rwandian genocide-gave presentation-you should know what your talking about
officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming part of South Asia and Central Asia.With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of 647,500 km2 (250,001 sq mi), making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and the east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, and China in the far northeast.
was the partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics. This led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan) and the Union of India (later Republic of India) which took place in 1947, on August 14 and 15, respectively.
The partition of India was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj. It resulted in a struggle between the new states of India and Pakistan and displaced up to 12.5 million people in the former British Indian Empire, with estimates of loss of life varying from several hundred thousand to a million.The violent nature of the partition created an atmosphere of mutual hostility and suspicion between India and Pakistan that plagues their relationship to this day.
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