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____ is the physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside to the inside of the body


The serous membranes that suspend the stomach and intestines from the abdominal wall are called


These nutrients are all absorbed without being digested except


These are all accessory organs of the digestive system except


Each of the following lists some of the tissue layers of the digestive tract. Which one has them in the correct order from lumen to external surface?

lamina propia, muscularis mucosae, subucosa, muscularis externa, serosa

The small intestine is suspended from the abdominal wall by

the mesentery

Chemical digestion breaks down ___ into ____

nucleic acids; nucleotides

The surface of the tongue is covered with ____ stratified squamous epithelium and has bumps called ______ site of taste buds

nonkeratinized; lingual papillae

Infants have _____ deciduous teeth, whereas adults have _______ permanent teeth


From superficial to deep, these are the structures found in a typical tooth


These are normally found in saliva except


The ______ gland is an extrinsic salivary gland, whereas the ______ gland is an intrinsic salivary gland

submandibular; lingual

The swallowing center is located in

the medulla oblongata

The buccal phase of swallowing is under ______ control and the pharyngo-esophageal phase is _______.

central nervous system; controlled by autonomicreflexes

Acid reflux into the esophagus(heartburn) is normally prevented by

the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

Hydrochloric acid (HCI) is secreted by _____ cells


______, which is secreted by ______ cells, is necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption

intrinsic factor; parietal

Pepsinogen is produced by ______ and is activated by ______

chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HCI) secreted by parietal cells

Why are several digestive enzymes secreted as zymogens

so they act only in the stomach lumen and do not digest intracellular proteins

The enterogastric reflex serves to

inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine

_____ is a hormone, whereas _______ is an enzyme

secretin; pepsin

_____ is associated with food stretching the stomach and activating myenteric and vagovagal reflexes, which in turn stimulate gastric secretions

the gastric phase

The organ that stores excess glucose and releases it later into the blood is

the liver

A hepatic (portal) triad consists of

bile ductule, branch of the hepatic artery and branch of hepatic portal vein

Of the following components of bile, only _____ has/have a digestive function

bile salts

The ____ synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing _____

liver; cholestrol

Pancreatic enzymes are secreted in response to the hormone

cholecytokinin (CCK)

Which of these is not a component of the pancreatic juice?


Which of these nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine?


Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH


Which of these is the site of contact digestion

brush border of the small intestine

The small intestine has a very large absorptive surface associated with all these structures except


The migrating motor complex

milks the chyme toward the colon

The _____ of the small intestine is/are similar to the ______ of the stomach

intestional crypts; gastric pits

Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ____, whereas protein digestion begins in the

mouth; stomach

The sodium-glucose transport protein(SGLP)

transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells

Amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed in the _____ and fatty acids are absorbed in the ______

small intestine; small intestine too

Lecithin prepares fats for hydrolysis by forming

emulsification droplets

Proteins are digested by different enzymes acting in the following sequence

pepsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase

_____ transport lipids to the surface of the intestinal absorptive cells, which process them into ______

micelles; chylomicrons

The three most abundant classes of nutrients are

fats, proteins, and carbohydrates

The muscle tone of the _____ along the colon contracts it lengthwise, causing its walls to bulge and form pouches called ______.

taeniae coli; haustra

Bacterial flora carry out all of the following except

digest most of the proteins we get in the diet

Bacteria constitute about _____ % of the dry weight of feces


Defecation is stimulated by

stretching of the rectum

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