Biology Kingdom Animalia

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Characteristics:
1. Motile
Have the ability to move at some stage.
Characteristics:
2. Multicellular
eukaryote. Heterotrophs. Aerobic. Most reproduce sexually.
Characteristics:
3. Different Stages of Life Cycles
Embryo>Adult
Larvae> Nymph> Adult
Two major types
Invertebrates and Vertebrates. 97-98% are invertebrates.
Classify By Looking at Body Plans:
1. Body Symmetry
A. Asymmetrical
No Symmetry. No equal portions example sponges.
Classify By Looking at Body Plans:
1. Body Symmetry
B. Radial Symmetry
Radiate out of a central axis and have tentacles. Sense danger/food in all directions examples are starfish or jellyfish.
Classify By Looking at Body Plans:
1. Body Symmetry
C. Bilateral Symmetry
Mere left/right images.
1. Anterior head
2. Dorsal backside/upside
3. Posterior rear
4. Ventral bellyside
Examples are sharks, people, and crawfish.
Classify By Looking at Body Plans:
2. Cephalization
Head. Only bilateral will have this. Brain and sensory organs. Ganglia > complex brain
Classify By Looking at Body Plans:
3. Type of Gut
Digestive system or organs. Incomplete and complete. has 1 opening which is incomplete and two openings which are complete.
Classify By Looking at Body Plans:
4. Segmentation
Body segments. Repeated sub-units. Like a earthworm. They may be fused for functions.
Classify By Looking at Body Plans:
5. Coelom
A true body cavity. Fluid filled cavity lined with mesoderm. This protects organs. Examples of things that have this are people, cheetahs, elephants.
Classify By Looking at Body Plans:
5. Coelom
A. Acoelomate
NO cavity.Organs squished inside like a flatworm.
Classify By Looking at Body Plans:
5. Coelom
B. Pseudocoelomate
False cavity like a round worm. Space.
Classify By Looking at Body Plans:
5. Coelom
C. Coelomate
Have a true coelem. Organs protected and example is people.
9 Major Phylums
1. Porifera
Sponges. Aquatic mostly marine. No tissue, organs, or organ systems. Cells work together to make it up. Asymmetrical and has filiter feeders. Collor cells which are cells that line the pores. Flagella move the water in pores and out oscula. Phagocytcized food. Sexual and Asexual reproduction. Spicules are internal structures that give strength and shape. They are also for defense and are made out of silica or CaCo3 or proteins.
9 Major Phylums
2. Cnidaria
Jelly fish, sea anemone, coral. Radial symmetry and have tentacles, but lack a brain and have a nerve net. have a digestive cavity. have cnidocytes or nematocysts which are a stinging device on a long thread barb. Ends have toxins or sticky stuff. Sexual and asexual reproduction. Polp are sessile and medusa are free floating.
9 Major Phylums
2. Cnidaria
Coral
Polp form. Secretes a calcium carbonate shell. Host to algae. Algae feeds coral. This builds up coral reefs. Nemo and all his friends.
9 Major Phylums
3. Platynelminthes-- Flatworms
Planarians, tapeworms, or flukes. Acoelmates with bilateral symmetry. Anterior end has a brain paired with a nervous system. Has a well developed digestive system. Incomplete. They are hermaphrodites. Have male and female sex organs. Also can be asexual if split in half. Examples are flukes which human liver is the host and intermediate is a snail. Also tapeworms in which the end host is human. Can grow 20ft.
9 Major Phylums
4. Nematoda
Roundworms. Hook worms, pin worms, heart worms. Round and pseudocoelomates. Bilateral and tapered at both ends. Sexual reproduction with separate sexes. Have a cuticle and flexible outer covering for protection. Have a ganglia and digestive system, complete. ~ 500,000 species. Some eat larvaee and eggs and some are parasitic. Examples are disease elephantitis, heart worms, hook worms, pin worms, and guinea worms.
9 Major Phylums
5. Annelida --Segmented worms
Earthworms and leeches. Bilateral symmetry. Coelomate. Have a complete digestive system and reproductive system. Can be hermaphrodites and some are asexual. Segmented repeating subunits. Have circulatory system and one heart in each segment and have cuticle. Have setae which are bristles that stick out and can retract.
9 Major Phylums
6. Arthropoda
Insects, bugs, crabs, spiders. Largest group of animals. Most diverse. Highly Successful for Adaptations:
1. Exoskeleton made of chitin for body armor. They restrict growth and Molt or shed this.
2. Jointed Appendages in order to move must be jointed. For feeding, sensory and locomotion.
3. Fused Segments have only certain appendages.
4. Improved Circulatory and Respiratory System like aquatic have gills. Terristrial have trachea. The more oxygen the more ATP. Open circulatory system a heart but no blood vessels.
5. Improved Sensory Organs antenna for sense. Vibrations, chemicals, and light. Compound eyes and multiple lenses.
6. Division of Labor divide up what theyre supposed to do among themselves.
Metamorphosis for Arthropoda
Process of changing from adult to larvae. Example is caterpillar to butterfly.
Classes of Arthropoda
1. Arachnida
Spider, Scorpions, and Ticks. 2 body segments and 8 walking legs. Carnivores have liquid diet. Poisonous are black widows, brown recluse. Some carry disease. Important eat tons of insects.
Classes of Arthropoda
2. Crustacea
Crawfish, Shrimp, and lobsters/crabs.
Most aquatic except roly-poly. Crusty exoskeleton and have 3 different mouth parts. Have 5 pair of walking legs a total of 10. Vary in size from microscopic to 12 ft. Important for birds, humans, fish and whales.
Classes of Arthropoda
3. Insecta
Roaches, butterflies, ants, mosquitos, and crickets. ~800,000 species. The body parts are head, thorax, and abdomen. The head has sensory organs like antenna eyes and mouth parts. The thorax is for locomotion and has 6 walking legs and 2 pairs of wings. The abdomen contains organs.
Pests bite, make u itch, carry diseases, and destroy homes. Important for BOTTOM OF FOOD CHAIN CAUSE THEY POLLENATE.
9 Major Phylums
7. Mollusca
Snails, oysters, and octopi. Soft bodied animals with over 100,000 species. Have a mantle which is a skirt of flesh, drapes over body. Muscular foot has 1 big muscle.
9 Major Phylums
7. Mollusca
A. Gastropoda Class
Belly foot. Snails/slugs. Use muscular foot to crawl on. Have a radula: ribbon like tongue with spikes on it. Used to scrape off algae. Aquatic or terrestrial.
9 Major Phylums
7. Mollusca
B. Pelecypoda Class
"Bivalve and Hatchet-foot". Oysters, scallops, clams. Use foot to bury in substrate. 2 hinged shells. 2 valves. filter feeders.
9 Major Phylums
7. Mollusca
C. Cephalopoda Class
"Head foot" octopus, cuddle fish, and cambered nautilus. Foot modified into tentacles. Mantles used for speed-jet propulsion. Rely on speed and intelligence. Well developed brain and capable of memory, communication, sensory, and close circulatory system.
9 Major Phylums
8. Echinodermata
Means spiny skin: starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers. Plates of CaCo3 with ridges and bumps. Adults have radial symmetry, but young are bilateral when become adults they lose their brains. Organs and organ systems is in their arms. Can regenerate missing parts. All have a water vascular system and can invert their stomachs.
9 Major Phylums
9. Chordata
Only one that has vertebrates. Not everything is a vertebrate. Four Characteristics: 1. All have a Notochord which is stiffened rod of tissue. 2. Dorsal, hollow nerve chord and dorsal to notochord and parallel. 3. Pharyngeal Gill Slits at some stage of development they all have them. 4. Post Anal Tail as an adult no human tail, but did at some stage.
3 Sub Phyla
- Tunicates and Lancelets
Bag-like bodies, sea squirts filter feeders. Invertebrates.
3 Sub Phyla
- Vertebrate
Things with backbone.
Key Innovations/ Adaptations of Vertebrates
1. Notochords is replaced by hardened vertebrate protects nervous system. More skeletal system supports body.
2. Anterior end is modified into jaws. Allow for ripping and tearing.
3. Better sensory organs at anterior end. Closest to jaw.
4. Muscular system 1 paired with skeletal. Speed/movement.
5. Paired appendages. Fins or stabilized and for speed and action.
6. Better circulatory and respiratory systems. Cutaneous respiration > gills > lungs. Heart and blood vessels 2>3>4 chambered.
Sub Phylum Vertebrate
1. Class Agnatha
Jawless fishes. Ill like bodies. NO pair fins. No jaws. Hagfish and lampreys with lots of teeth.
Sub Phylum Vertebrate
2. Class Chondrichthyes
Cartilaginous Fish. Sharks, rays: bodies of cartilage. Big jaws/ lots and lots of teeth. Lose lots of teeth quickly. Have paired fins. Two chambered heart and have gills. Some of them do have toxins. Electric shocks.