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electrons that have the highest energy level and are held most loosely. These are the electrons involved in bonding
force of attraction that holds two atoms together as a result of rearrangement of electrons
attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Forms as a result of attraction between positive and negative ions. Usually occurs between a metal and a non-metal
Properties of ionic compounds
strong bonds, high melting points, conduct electricity when dissolved in water
chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons usually occurs between two non-metals
Properties of molecular compounds
weaker bonds, low melting and boiling points, don't conduct electricity when dissovled in water
Polar covalent bond
when electrons are shared unequally between atoms, one atom is pulling more on the electrons, causing a slight charge on the atoms
Non-polar covalent bond
when electrons are shared equally between atoms, all atoms pull equally on the electrons, so no charge on the atoms
mixture made of two or more elements that have properties of a metal. At least one must be a metal. Usually less likely to react with air and water than pure metals they are made of.
Signs of a chemical reaction
new substance formed and change in energy always occur. Can see a change in color, bubbles, or a precipitate
Energy is taken in by the reaction and the products have more energy than the reactants
energy is released by the reaction and the products have less energy than the reactants
Conservation of mass law
Mass can not be created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction. This is why chemical equations must be balanced.
double replacement reaction
elements in one compound appear to trade places with elements of the other compound
material that increases the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy. Provides a surface for the reaction to take place
materal used to decrease the rate of reaction, prevents the reactants from forming the product
an increase of this causes more particles to be exposed to the reactant and increases the rate of the reaction
an increase of this causes the paricles of the reactant to speed up and collide with each other more often, which speeds up the reaction rate
an increase of this causes more reactants to be in a confined area, this causes them to collide more often and increases the reaction rate
a number written in front of a chemical formula (symbol for compound) to indicate the number of molecules present in a chemical equation/reaction
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