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57 terms

HIstory and Approaches RM

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empiricism
the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function-how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish
experimental psychology
the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method
humanistic psychology
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth
cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
psychology
the science of behavior and mental processes
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival with most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
level of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
biopsychosocial approach
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
biological psychology
a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes
evolutionary psychology
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection
psychodynamic psychology
a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders
behavioral psychology
the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning
cognitive psychology
the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicatin
social-cultural psychology
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
psychometrics
the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
developmental psychology
the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
educational psychology
the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
personality psychology
the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting
social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
human factors psychology
the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
psychiatry
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
Introspection
a method of exploring conscious mental processes adopted by the Structuralists; subjects were asked to look inward and report their sensations and perceptions.
Population
all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.
Psychology
the science of behavior and mental processes.
Scientific Method
a general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized.
Structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elements of the human mind.
Behaviorism
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
Cognitive Psychology
the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Gestalt Psychology
an organized whole. Emphasizes our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
Evolutionary Psychology
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection.
Psychobiology
a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes.
Humanistic Psychology
a psychological viewpoint emphasizing that each individual has great freedom in directing his or her fortune, considerable capacity for achieving personal growth, intrinsic worth, and enormous potential for self-fulfillment.
Sociocultural Psychology
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.
Psychodynamic Psychology
a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.
Developmental Psychology
the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan.
Personality Psychology
the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Social Psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
Mary Whiton Calkins
first woman president of APA; Denied her doctorate from Harvard.
Charles Darwin
Theory of evolution, survival of the fittest—origin of species.
Dorothea Dix
created the first American mental institutions.
Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalytical theory that focuses on the unconscious—Id, Ego, & Superego
G. Stanley Hall
founded the American Journal of Psychology.
William James
wrote "Principles of Psychology" and helped establish psychology as a serious discipline; regarded consciousness as a stream or flow of images and sensations.
Ivan Pavlov
known for discovering classical conditioning—An unconditional stimulus naturally elicits a reflexive behavior called an unconditional response. But with repeated pairings with a neutral stimulus, the neutral stimulus will elicit the response. Dog salivation, etc.
Jean Piaget
Four-stage theory of cognitive development. 1. Sensorimotor, 2. Preoperational, 3. Concrete Operational, & 4. Formal Operational. He said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth: assimilation & accommodation.
Carl Rogers
Humanistic psychology—the theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth.
BF Skinner
operant conditioning—techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior.
Margaret Floy Washburn
first woman granted a PhD in Psychology.
John B. Watson
founded Behaviorism
Wilhelm Wundt
introspection—psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience; father of psychology.