36 terms

AP Euro Chapter 29

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Cold War
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
Decolonization
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
Containment
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Marshall Plan
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Berlin Blockade
April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S. and Great Britain mounted air lifts which became so intense that, at their height, an airplane was landing in West Berlin every few minutes. West Germany was a republic under Franc, the U.S. and Great Britain. Berlin was located entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany.
NATO
an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security
Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Balfour Declaration
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.
Korean War
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
Khrushchev
Soviet leader, publicly denounced Stalin, free many political prisoners eased censorship
Hungarian Uprising
Hungarian nationalists staged huge demonstrations demanding non-communist parties be legalized; turned into armed rebellion and spread throughout the country
Berlin Wall
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Brezhnev
Soviet Dictator from 1964 to 1982; brought an end to the Dethawing of the Cold War, instituted his doctrine of intervention in Eastern Europe; invaded Afghanistan in 1979
Invasion of Czechoslovakia
On August 20-21, 1968, the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), Hungary and Poland invaded the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic in order to halt Alexander Dubček's Prague Spring political liberalization reforms. The Soviet Union no longer had fears of revolutions in Czechoslovakia.
Détente
French word meaning an easing of tensions between the world's superpowers during the Cold War
Solidarity
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
Reagan
(president) 40th republican with a strong anti-communist view. influenced fall of communism. talked with Gorbachev to end Cold War
Vietnam
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
Gorbachev
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms
Perestroika
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
Glasnot
"openness", aimed to open Soviet society by introducing free speech and some political liberty, ending party censorship. This is a huge break with the past and very successful. (Basically is no longer Communism).
German Reunification
process in which German Democratic Republic (East Germany) joined Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and Berlin was united into a single city
Velvet Revolution
Mass protests in Czechoslovakia, led by playwright Vaclev Havel, that culminated in the fall of communism in that country in November 1989.
Collapse of Soviet Union
Communism collapsed in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe during 1989 - 1991; the Cold War also ended during
Yeltsin
First person ever elected by popular vote in Russia; drafted a new constitution similar to France's which established a mixed presidential-parliamentary system anchored in a powerful presidency
Coup
a sudden and decisive change of government illegally or by force
Putin
Russian statesman chosen as president of the Russian Federation in 2000
Radical Political Islamism
the perspective often associated with those seeking to purge "degenerate" foreign elements from Muslim society and establish a "pure" Islamic state based strictly on the sharia (islamic law) and added to politics
Arab Nationalism
belief that all Arabs should ban together and form one large Arab country. Nasser (leader of Egypt at the time) was major component and leader of this new Arab country. power struggles soon began between countries.
Iranian Revolution
(1978-1979) a revolution against the shah of Iran led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in Iran becoming an Islamic republic with Khomeini as its leader
Afghanistan and Radical Islamism
when it came to Afghanistan, the US saw Soviet intervention as another act of war
Taliban
fundamentalist Muslim group, gained power, restored order, but imposed an extreme form of Islam on Afghanistan, supported al-Qaeda
Al Qaeda
Islamist terrorist organization that launched a series of attacks against U.S.
Jihad
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal