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Council of Trent

a meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers

Diet of worms

A meeting summoned by Charles V that commanded Martin Luther to abandon his ideas. Luther refused and was branded an outlaw.


the remission of temporal punishment resulting from sin for oneself and also for the souls in purgatory.

Justification by faith

God's gracious act of rendering a sinful human to be holy and endowed with grace (in Catholic and Orthodox doctrines) or as acceptable to God (Lutheran)

Ninety-five theses

martin Luther's statement of principle's regarding penance and the abuse of indulgences

Peace of Augsburg

allowed each prince to decide the religion of his subjects

Peasant's revolt

a series of uprisings by German peasants against their landowners


idea that God determines man's salvation before birth


Form of Calvinism in Scotland by John Knox


A 16th-century movement in Western Europe that aimed at reforming some doctrines and practices of the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the establishment of the Protestant churches.

Sola Scriptura

protestant belief that the bible is the sole source of religious truth


government run by religious leaders


The practice of aligning beliefs and practices from local cultures with Christianity

Christians of Saint Thomas

Indian Christians who trace their origins to the first century


An agreement between the pope and a head of state identifying the role that each would play in Church governance in that country


Belief that God created the world and then left it to run according to natural laws


The 17th and 18th century movement in Europe during which reason and science grew in importance as sources of truth


a movement which started among the Catholic clergy in France. It was rooted in an exaggerated sense of nationalism, and claimed that national rulers had authority over Church governance in France.


a gift of the Spirit whereby the pope and bishops are preserved from error when proclaiming a doctrine related to Christian faith or morals


a person who rules over a kingdom or empire


a theory that nothing is true unless founded on scientifically demonstrable proofs based solely on reason and the five senses; condemned by the first Vatican council

Reign of Terror

the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed.


A method of intellectual inquiry dominant in western Christian civilization from the Middle Ages until the seventeenth century, and into the twentieth century among catholic scholars


Belief, often in an exaggerated form, that the pope alone has ultimate authority for Church governance in all countries

Act of Tolerance

a law enacted in Maryland in 1649 declaring that all Christian denominations have a right to practice their faith


Spanish conquerors who came to the New World in search of gold and other riches.

know nothing party

Political party of the 1850s that was anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant

Lay trusteeism

control of parish funds and resources by an elected body of lay people


anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant movement

Our Lady of Guadalupe

patroness of the Americas


the belief that all religions are equally valid


a political system in which a ruler holds total power


A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.

Reductions of Paraguay

Jesuits worked with many native american groups and transformed them into self-sufficient farming communities that celebrated the catholic feasts. Reduction was bringing together tribes that didn't speak together

Martin Luther

German Augustinian friar who wrote to the local archbishop outlining his position on a number of theological issues

St. Ignatius Loyola

A young soldier who wanted to become a saint ho then formed the Jesuit order and Jesuit universities

Saint Charles Borromeo

the nephew of Pope Pius IV is the patron saint of seminarians. He took an active role at the council of Trent in 1562. He composed the Roman Catechism.

Catherine of Aragon

When Henry VIII needed a son to continue the Tudor dynasty, and he found out his wife Catherine of Aragon could not give him one (only a daughter, Mary), he sought an annulment. Of course, the Catholic Church denied him one, and in return Henry VIII split England from the Catholic Church.

Queen Isabella

Queen of Spain who gave Columbus the ships and sailors to sail to the new world

Duke Frederick of Germany

protected Luther after the Diet of Worms condemned him

Archbishop Albrecht

Accused Luther of "new teachings"

The Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

created to be an elite teaching, missionary force in the Catholic Church; founded by a former Spanish soldier Ignatius Loyola, organized along military lines, spread the Catholic message and slowed the growth of Protestantism, it stressed education and founded many colleges (many Protestants hated and fears the Jesuits; in England Jesuit priests were killed) (it was made during the Counter-Reformation)

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