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Frog heart effects, cardiovascular physiology, respiration (spirometry), respiratory system mechanics, FEV Test, acid-base balance and control of respiration

cold temp


hot temp






Ach (acetycholine)


Nicotine on heart


Nicotine on ganglion






define a drug


define a sympathomimetic drug

Sympathomimetic drugs are substances that mimic the effects of the sympathetic nervous system, such as catecholamines, epinephrine...

describe clinical uses of digitalis

Digitalis medication works directly on the heart muscle to strengthen and regulate the heartbeat. It is used to treat certain heart conditions

what is spirometry

technique used to analyze lung function
patient breathes into airflow transducer which measures volumes of air moved in and out of lungs under different conditions. Abnormal results of spirometry graph will indicated disease in the lungs and or cardiovascular system

total lung capacity (TLC)

total amount of air in lungs or total lung capacity

vital capacity (VC)

total amount of air in one deep breath

Residual Volume (RV)? Can we measure RV in lab?

vol. of gas remaining in lungs at end of max. expiration
cannot measure RV in lab because patient has to continue breathing

Tidal Volume (TV)

volume of air inspired or expired during one breath

Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)

vol. of air that can normally be (inspired) inhaled at end of TV

Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)

vol of air that can normally be maximally (expired) exhaled at end of TV

Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
Expiratory Capacity (EC)


Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)


Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1)
Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)

FEV1 = amount of exhaled air at first second
FVC = amt of inhalation of deep breath

describe procedure for measuring FEV1


What values influence VC

height, weight, age, gender, race,
type of breaths taken = normal vs. deep breaths

How do you calculate % of VC from spirometry recording


descirbe obstructive respiratory disease
what will spirometry look like?


describe obstructive lung disease
what will spirometry look like?


what is difference between obstructive respiratory disease and obstructive lung disease?



TLC is normal
increased FRC and RV
decreased VC and FEV1 and FEV/VC%

what is most efficient way to increase alveolar ventilation

increase TV

define normal blood pH

between 7.35 and 7.45

respiratory acidosis

result of impaired respiration (hypoventialtion)
leads to accumulation of too much CO2 in blood
causes: airway obstruction, depression of respiratory center in the brain, lung disease, drug overdose
increase CO2, increase H+ ions, decrease pH

respiratory alkalosis

condition of too little carbon dioxide in the blood (hyperventilation)
result of traveling to high altitudes (air has less oxygen) or hyperventilation(caused by fever or anxiety)
decrease CO2, decrease H+ ions, increase pH

describe adjustments made by the respiratory sytem in acidosis and alkalosis



cessation of breathing


normal quiet breathing


increase resp rate with metabolism

causes respiratory acidosis

increase resp rate with no metabolism
too little carbon dioxide in the blood

causes respriatory alkalosis

decrease alveolar ventilation (shallow breathing) or imparied respiration

metabolic acidosis = body pH <7.35

same conditions of acidosis not caused by respiratory system

metabolic alkalosis = body pH >7.45

same conditions of alkalosis not caused by respiratory system

what is the body's two major buffering systems

(1) renal system - slower (hours to days to work)
(2) respiratory system - works within minutes, but cannot handle pH change renal system can
****both systems help regulate body pH by controlling output of acids, bases, and CO2

erythropoietin (EPO)

A hormone produced by the kidney that promotes the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow.


is the yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. Heme is found in hemoglobin, a principal component of red blood cells. Bilirubin is excreted in bile and urine, and elevated levels may indicate certain diseases.
Hyperbilirubinemia subsequently causes increased levels of bilirubin in the extracellular fluid. Concentration of bilirubin in blood plasma does not normally exceed 1 mg/dL (>17µmol/L). A concentration higher than 1.8 mg/dL (>30µmol/L) leads to jaundice.[2


is a yellowish pigmentation of the skin, the conjunctival membranes over the sclerae (whites of the eyes), and other mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood).


stable complex of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin that forms in red blood cells when carbon monoxide is inhaled or produced in normal metabolism. Large quantities of it hinder delivery of oxygen to the body


is a form of the oxygen-carrying metalloprotein hemoglobin, in which the iron in the heme group is in the Fe3+ (ferric) state, not the Fe2+ (ferrous) of normal hemoglobin. Methemoglobin cannot bind oxygen, unlike oxyhemoglobin.

methemoglobin levels

Methemoglobin saturation is expressed as the percentage of hemoglobin in the methemoglobin state; That is MetHb as a proportion of Hb.

1-2% Normal
Less than 10% metHb - No symptoms
10-20% metHb - Skin discoloration only (most notably on mucus membranes)
20-30% metHb - Anxiety, headache, dyspnea on exertion
30-50% metHb - Fatigue, confusion, dizziness, tachypnea, palpitations
50-70% metHb - Coma, seizures, arrhythmias, acidosis
Greater than 70% metHb - Death

how much blood does the average sized adult have

4.9L to 5.5L

what is the buffy coat made up of

centrifuged middle layer of WBC

what is normal RBC range

4.5-5.9 million/mm3

what is the most abundant leukocytes in the blood


Prostagladins (thromboxane A2) stimulates

platelet aggregation and formation of platelet plug

damage to tissues stimulates the activiation of what?

extrinisic blood clotting

Boyle's Law

the pressure of given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume


slow cardiac rate = <60 BPM


excessively rapid heart rate = >100BPM

Gas X makes up 15% of a gas mix, at 760 mmHg, the partial pressure of Gas X would be?

Px = (.15) x (760 mmHg) = 114 mmHg

a pH above 7.45 is considered acid or basic?


what decreases affinity of Hb for oxygen

carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, acidity or low pH

what does carbonic anhydrase do

catalyzes the formation of H2CO3 from CO2 and water

what is the normal value of arterial percent hemoglobin saturation


CO (cardiac output) is

CO = SV x HR

cardiac control center of medulla

coordinates the autonomic innervation of the heart

Frank Staling Law of the heart

as preload increase the SV increases
therefore SV is directly proportional to preload (EDV)

SV is inversely proportional to

total perpheral resistance;
therefore, the greater the peripheral resistance, the lower the SV

ADH secretion is stimulated when osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect

an increase in blood osmolality

hydrostatic pressure is 34 mmHg or higher at the arterial end of a capillary

hydrostatice pressure is 17mmHg or lower at the venous end

Type II alveolar cells secrete pulmonary


intrapulmonary pressure decreases to about -3mmHg

as the diaphragm contracts

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