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72 terms

Physio - Unit 3 lab part II

Frog heart effects, cardiovascular physiology, respiration (spirometry), respiratory system mechanics, FEV Test, acid-base balance and control of respiration
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cold temp
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hot temp
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Ca2+
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Digitalis
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KCl
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Pilocarpine
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Ach (acetycholine)
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Nicotine on heart
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Nicotine on ganglion
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caffeine
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epinephrine
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define a drug
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define a sympathomimetic drug
Sympathomimetic drugs are substances that mimic the effects of the sympathetic nervous system, such as catecholamines, epinephrine...
describe clinical uses of digitalis
Digitalis medication works directly on the heart muscle to strengthen and regulate the heartbeat. It is used to treat certain heart conditions
what is spirometry
technique used to analyze lung function
patient breathes into airflow transducer which measures volumes of air moved in and out of lungs under different conditions. Abnormal results of spirometry graph will indicated disease in the lungs and or cardiovascular system
total lung capacity (TLC)
TLC = IRV+TV+ERV+RV
total amount of air in lungs or total lung capacity
vital capacity (VC)
VC = IRV+TV+ERV
total amount of air in one deep breath
Residual Volume (RV)? Can we measure RV in lab?
vol. of gas remaining in lungs at end of max. expiration
cannot measure RV in lab because patient has to continue breathing
Tidal Volume (TV)
volume of air inspired or expired during one breath
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
vol. of air that can normally be (inspired) inhaled at end of TV
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
vol of air that can normally be maximally (expired) exhaled at end of TV
Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
Expiratory Capacity (EC)
IC = TV+IRV
EC = TV+ERV
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
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Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1)
Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)
FEV1 = amount of exhaled air at first second
FVC = amt of inhalation of deep breath
describe procedure for measuring FEV1
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What values influence VC
height, weight, age, gender, race,
type of breaths taken = normal vs. deep breaths
How do you calculate % of VC from spirometry recording
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descirbe obstructive respiratory disease
what will spirometry look like?
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describe obstructive lung disease
what will spirometry look like?
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what is difference between obstructive respiratory disease and obstructive lung disease?
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COPD
TLC is normal
increased FRC and RV
decreased VC and FEV1 and FEV/VC%
what is most efficient way to increase alveolar ventilation
increase TV
define normal blood pH
between 7.35 and 7.45
respiratory acidosis
result of impaired respiration (hypoventialtion)
leads to accumulation of too much CO2 in blood
causes: airway obstruction, depression of respiratory center in the brain, lung disease, drug overdose
increase CO2, increase H+ ions, decrease pH
respiratory alkalosis
condition of too little carbon dioxide in the blood (hyperventilation)
result of traveling to high altitudes (air has less oxygen) or hyperventilation(caused by fever or anxiety)
decrease CO2, decrease H+ ions, increase pH
describe adjustments made by the respiratory sytem in acidosis and alkalosis
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apnea
cessation of breathing
eupnea
normal quiet breathing
hyperpnea
increase resp rate with metabolism
hyperventilation
causes respiratory acidosis
increase resp rate with no metabolism
too little carbon dioxide in the blood
hypoventilation
causes respriatory alkalosis
decrease alveolar ventilation (shallow breathing) or imparied respiration
metabolic acidosis = body pH <7.35
same conditions of acidosis not caused by respiratory system
metabolic alkalosis = body pH >7.45
same conditions of alkalosis not caused by respiratory system
what is the body's two major buffering systems
(1) renal system - slower (hours to days to work)
(2) respiratory system - works within minutes, but cannot handle pH change renal system can
****both systems help regulate body pH by controlling output of acids, bases, and CO2
erythropoietin (EPO)
A hormone produced by the kidney that promotes the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow.
bilirubin
is the yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. Heme is found in hemoglobin, a principal component of red blood cells. Bilirubin is excreted in bile and urine, and elevated levels may indicate certain diseases.
Hyperbilirubinemia subsequently causes increased levels of bilirubin in the extracellular fluid. Concentration of bilirubin in blood plasma does not normally exceed 1 mg/dL (>17µmol/L). A concentration higher than 1.8 mg/dL (>30µmol/L) leads to jaundice.[2
jaundice
is a yellowish pigmentation of the skin, the conjunctival membranes over the sclerae (whites of the eyes), and other mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood).
carboxyhemoglobin
stable complex of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin that forms in red blood cells when carbon monoxide is inhaled or produced in normal metabolism. Large quantities of it hinder delivery of oxygen to the body
methemoglobin
is a form of the oxygen-carrying metalloprotein hemoglobin, in which the iron in the heme group is in the Fe3+ (ferric) state, not the Fe2+ (ferrous) of normal hemoglobin. Methemoglobin cannot bind oxygen, unlike oxyhemoglobin.
methemoglobin levels
Methemoglobin saturation is expressed as the percentage of hemoglobin in the methemoglobin state; That is MetHb as a proportion of Hb.

1-2% Normal
Less than 10% metHb - No symptoms
10-20% metHb - Skin discoloration only (most notably on mucus membranes)
20-30% metHb - Anxiety, headache, dyspnea on exertion
30-50% metHb - Fatigue, confusion, dizziness, tachypnea, palpitations
50-70% metHb - Coma, seizures, arrhythmias, acidosis
Greater than 70% metHb - Death
how much blood does the average sized adult have
4.9L to 5.5L
what is the buffy coat made up of
centrifuged middle layer of WBC
what is normal RBC range
4.5-5.9 million/mm3
what is the most abundant leukocytes in the blood
neutrophils
Prostagladins (thromboxane A2) stimulates
platelet aggregation and formation of platelet plug
damage to tissues stimulates the activiation of what?
extrinisic blood clotting
Boyle's Law
the pressure of given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume
bradycardia
slow cardiac rate = <60 BPM
tachycardia
excessively rapid heart rate = >100BPM
Gas X makes up 15% of a gas mix, at 760 mmHg, the partial pressure of Gas X would be?
Px = (.15) x (760 mmHg) = 114 mmHg
a pH above 7.45 is considered acid or basic?
basic
what decreases affinity of Hb for oxygen
carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, acidity or low pH
what does carbonic anhydrase do
catalyzes the formation of H2CO3 from CO2 and water
what is the normal value of arterial percent hemoglobin saturation
97-98%
CO (cardiac output) is
CO = SV x HR
cardiac control center of medulla
coordinates the autonomic innervation of the heart
Frank Staling Law of the heart
as preload increase the SV increases
therefore SV is directly proportional to preload (EDV)
SV is inversely proportional to
total perpheral resistance;
therefore, the greater the peripheral resistance, the lower the SV
ADH secretion is stimulated when osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect
an increase in blood osmolality
hydrostatic pressure is 34 mmHg or higher at the arterial end of a capillary
hydrostatice pressure is 17mmHg or lower at the venous end
Type II alveolar cells secrete pulmonary
surfactant
intrapulmonary pressure decreases to about -3mmHg
as the diaphragm contracts