29 terms

10th Grade World History CH 14 set 2

Absolutism in Europe
Hapsburg Family
Who ruled Austria
Catholic Church and nobility had a lot of power, didn't want to give up any of it, surrounded by France, Prussia who wanted land so Austrian rulers had to make nobles happy, Hungarians were part of Austria and didn't want to do as told by Hapsburgs
Reasons for weak absolute ruler
Joseph II (A)
1765-1790 Co-ruler with mom
Maria Theresa (A)
Co-ruler with son, heard Beethoven play when Beethoven was only 5 years old, cautious ruler
Forced church and nobles to pay higher taxes, reduced taxes for peasants, centralized power, allowed only useful monasteries to stay, gave religious freedom to non-Catholics
Joseph II took these steps to solidify power
Changes he made were too drastic, only in power 10 years so they were still seen as "new"
Why did Joseph II's changes not take effect
Church and Nobility regained power after Joseph's death
Why did Austria not become an absolutist nation like most of Europe
Ivan IV (R)
1533-1584 Ruler of Russia, The Terrible, One of first rulers after Russia kicked out Mongols
Expanded territory, built St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow, murdered nobility, murdered son, high taxes on people, treated people as slaves, took title of Czar
What did Ivan IV accomplish as king
St. Basil's Cathedral
One of most beautiful cathedrals in the world, architects were blinded by Ivan IV to prevent them building another as beautiful
Nobility fought to control Russia, peasants burned and looted
What happened when Ivan IV died
Romanov Dynasty
Ruling family after Ivan IV, ruled from 1613 until Communists took over in 1917
Peter I (R)
1682-1725 On of strongest and best rulers, began modernization of Russia, traveled in Europe as a commoner to learn
Revolt among palace guards
Why did Peter I return to Russia
Put conspirators in dungeon, torture by roasting slowly with dr to revive them, decapitated in the end
What did Peter I do to guilty guards
over 700 shipbuilders, mathematicians, engineers
Who did Peter I bring with him when he returned to Russia
No more traditional dress or beards, nothing Oriental, adopted western calendar
What steps did Peter I take to Westernize Russia
St. Petersburg
New Capital of Russia under Peter I
needed warm water ports
Why did Peter I want to expand his territory
Great Northern War from 1700-1721
Russia took territory along the Baltic Sea from Sweden and Peter earned title of The Great
Patriarch died and Peter replaced him with the Holy Synod
How did Peter I control the Orthodox Chuch
Alexis Petrovich
Son of Peter I
Alexis ran away to what city
Arrested, accused of plotting to kill Peter I, questioned, whipped, whipped again, died
What happened to Alexis when he returned from running away
Peter I
Who was logged in as questioning a prisoner on the day Alexis died?
Catherine II (R)
1762-1796 The Great, ruler of Russia, arrested and killed husband, Empress
Good ruler, immoral, let nobility keep power as long as they did as she wanted but let them send people to Siberia, crushed revolting peasants, invited intellectuals from the Enlightenment to Russia, supported education and social reform, finished Westernization of Russia, took property from Orthodox Church
How did Catherine II gain more power
more sea ports
Why did Catherine II take territory from the Poles and Turks
North shore of Black Sea
Where did Catherine II gain territory