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Catholic Church and nobility had a lot of power, didn't want to give up any of it, surrounded by France, Prussia who wanted land so Austrian rulers had to make nobles happy, Hungarians were part of Austria and didn't want to do as told by Hapsburgs
Reasons for weak absolute ruler
Maria Theresa (A)
Co-ruler with son, heard Beethoven play when Beethoven was only 5 years old, cautious ruler
Forced church and nobles to pay higher taxes, reduced taxes for peasants, centralized power, allowed only useful monasteries to stay, gave religious freedom to non-Catholics
Joseph II took these steps to solidify power
Changes he made were too drastic, only in power 10 years so they were still seen as "new"
Why did Joseph II's changes not take effect
Church and Nobility regained power after Joseph's death
Why did Austria not become an absolutist nation like most of Europe
Ivan IV (R)
1533-1584 Ruler of Russia, The Terrible, One of first rulers after Russia kicked out Mongols
Expanded territory, built St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow, murdered nobility, murdered son, high taxes on people, treated people as slaves, took title of Czar
What did Ivan IV accomplish as king
St. Basil's Cathedral
One of most beautiful cathedrals in the world, architects were blinded by Ivan IV to prevent them building another as beautiful
Peter I (R)
1682-1725 On of strongest and best rulers, began modernization of Russia, traveled in Europe as a commoner to learn
Put conspirators in dungeon, torture by roasting slowly with dr to revive them, decapitated in the end
What did Peter I do to guilty guards
over 700 shipbuilders, mathematicians, engineers
Who did Peter I bring with him when he returned to Russia
No more traditional dress or beards, nothing Oriental, adopted western calendar
What steps did Peter I take to Westernize Russia
Great Northern War from 1700-1721
Russia took territory along the Baltic Sea from Sweden and Peter earned title of The Great
Patriarch died and Peter replaced him with the Holy Synod
How did Peter I control the Orthodox Chuch
Arrested, accused of plotting to kill Peter I, questioned, whipped, whipped again, died
What happened to Alexis when he returned from running away
Good ruler, immoral, let nobility keep power as long as they did as she wanted but let them send people to Siberia, crushed revolting peasants, invited intellectuals from the Enlightenment to Russia, supported education and social reform, finished Westernization of Russia, took property from Orthodox Church
How did Catherine II gain more power
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