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Supreme Court Cases
Terms in this set (12)
Marbury v Madison
The court established its role as the arbiter of the constitutionality of federal laws, the principle is known as judicial review
McCulloch v. Maryland
The Court ruled that states cannot tax the federal government, i.e. the Bank of the United States; the phrase "the power to tax is the power to destroy"; confirmed the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States.
Worcester v. Georgia
Established tribal autonomy within their boundaries, i.e. the tribes were "distinct political communities, having territorial boundaries within which their authority is exclusive."
Scott v. Sanford
Speaking for a widely divided court, Chief Justice Taney ruled that Dred Scott was not a citizen and had no standing in court; Scott's residence in a free state and territory had not made him free since he returned to Missouri; Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in a territory (based on the 5th Amendment right of a person to be secure from seizure of property), thus voiding the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
Munn v. Illinois
States can regulate business when it is in the interest of the public good. The state of Illinois imposed caps on the maximum price the owners of grain elevators could charge. The owners argued that such regulation denied them their equal protection under the laws, which was guaranteed by the 14th Amendment. The Supreme Court disagreed, establishing that private property can be regulated when is has an impact on the general wellbeing of the public.
Wabash v Illinois
Only the Federal government can regulate interstate commerce. This case led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Illinois placed a tax on interstate commerce. The Supreme Court ruled that only the Federal government had the right to impose such taxes (under the "Commerce Clause"). This decision ultimately led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Legalized segregation in publicly owned facilities on the basis of "separate but equal."
Schenck v. U. S.
Unanimously upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 which declared that people who interfered with the war effort were subject to imprisonment; declared that the 1st Amendment right to freedom of speech was not absolute; free speech could be limited if its exercise presented a "clear and present danger."
Schechter v. U. S.
Sometimes called "the sick chicken case." Unanimously declared the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) unconstitutional on three grounds: that the act delegated legislative power to the executive; that there was a lack of constitutional authority for such legislation; and that it sought to regulate businesses that were wholly intrastate in character.
Brown v. Board of Education
Unanimous decision declaring "separate but equal" unconstitutional.
Miranda v. Arizona
The court ruled that those subjected to in-custody interrogation be advised of their constitutional right to an attorney and their right to remain silent.
Roe v. Wade
The court legalized abortion by ruling that state laws could not restrict it during the first three months of pregnancy. Based on 4th Amendment rights of a person to be secure in their persons.
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