42 terms

Photosynthesis Flashcards

Photosynthesis, Biology 20, Chapter 6
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Photon
A packet of light.
Chlorophyll
The light-absorbing green-coloured pigment that begins the process of photosynthesis.
Chloroplast
A membrane-bound organelle in green plant and algal cells that carries out photosynthesis.
Stroma
The protein-rich semiliquid material in the interior of a chloroplast.
Thylakoid
A disk-shaped sac in the stroma of a chloroplast.
Grana
Stacks of tylakoids.
Lamellae
Groups of unstacked thylakoids between grana.
Thylakoid Membrane
The photosynthetic membrane within a chloroplast that contains light gathering pigment molecules and electron transport chains.
Thylakoid Lumen
A fluid-filled interior space enclosed by the thylakoid membrane.
ATP
A molecule containing three high energy phosphate bonds that acts as the primary energy-transferring molecule in a living organism.
ADP
A molecule containing two high-energy phosphate bonds that may be formed by breaking one of the phosphate bonds in ATP.
NADP+
A compound that accepts one hydrogen atom and two electrons forming NADPH; it is an electron acceptor.
NADPH
A compound that donates one hydrogen aton and two electrons to another molecule, to reform NADP+; it is an electron donor.
Light-dependent reactions
reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
Carbon Fixation
The process of incorporation CO2 into carbohydrate molecules.
Calvin Cycle
A cyclic set of reactions occurring in the stroma of chloroplasts that fixes the carbon of CO2 into carbohydrate molecules and recycles coenzymes.
Light-independent reactions
The second set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light.
Photosystem
A cluster of photosynthetic pigments embedded in a thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast that absorbs light energy.
Electron Transport Chain
A series of progressively stronger electron acceptors; each time an electron is transferred, energy is released.
Photolysis
A chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down by light.
Oxidation
A reaction in which an atom or molecule loses electrons.
Reduction
A reaction which an atom or molecule gains electrons.
Chemiosmosis
A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.
Photosynthesis Equation
6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Formula for Glucose
C6H12O6
Chemical Bonds
Where energy is stored in photosynthetic organisms.
Short wavelengths have...
High Energy.
Number of molecules used in the Calvin Cycle?
6 Molecules.
Raw Materials in photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide and Water.
Molecule of immediate energy?
ATP.
Products of 'Light-Dependent' reactions?
ATP, NADPH and O2.
Chemical reactions where electrons are lost.
Oxidation.
Range of coloured lights wavelength.
380nm - 750nm.
What does chlorophyll do to green pigment?
Reflects it.
Chlorophyll A
The pigment able to use light energy.
Where light is absorbed.
Thylakoid Membranes
Process of water breaking down.
Photolysis.
Where does the Calvin Cycle occur?
The Stroma
Carbon Fixation
The process of incorporating CO2 into carbohydrate molecules.
What is the chemical process where electrons are gained?
Reduction
A process where energy in electrons in released.
Electron Transport Chain.
One glucose molecule requires _ ATP and _ NADPH.
18 ATP and 12 NADPH.