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What is the association of energy and vitamins & minerals?

There are no calories/energy in vitamins & minerals.

What is a food source of Vitamin A?


What is a food source of Vitamin B?

Animal products

What is a food source of Vitamin C?

Citrus fruits

What is a food source of Vitamin D?


What is a food source of Vitamin E?

Nuts, seeds, vegetable oils

What is the effect of cooking, storing, and processing of vitamins?

Frozen foods are okay, boiling the foods is not as good

What is the cause of inadequate vitamin levels in the diet?

Not eating enough fruits and vegetables

What is the association of Vitamin A and a particular color?

Turns the skin color orange if there is too much intake

What are the water soluble vitamins?

Vitamins B & C

What are the fat soluble vitamins?

A, D, E, K

What are the benefits and dangers of each vitamin category?

Frequency and storage are needed

What is the difference between organic and inorganic compounds?


How much calcium should women intake daily?

1200 mg/day

Association between women and iron in the diet

Plant and supplement sources are well regulated in the body, but animal sources are not

What two things does increased physical activity also increase?

Mineral and calorie requirements

What types of diets need to be more careful about supplementing vitamins and minerals?

Low calorie diets

Fat, phosphorous, fiber, and caffeine may decrease what?

Calcium absorption

What may cause osteoporosis?

Low calcium in the diet or low weight bearing impact exercise

What contributes to building tissues, regulating metabolism, but not increasing energy?


What are some sources of minerals?

Plant sources, animal products, supplements, and drinking water, but especially dairy, dark greens, and fortified orange juice

What type of disease is commonly found in elderly women, thin runners, gymnasts, and amenorrheic athletes?


How much calcium should men intake in a day and what can too high of levels lead to?

1000 mg/day, prostate cancer

Where is heme iron found?

Animal derived foods

What two acids effect bioavailability of some minerals, specifically iron?

Oxalic and phytic acids

Moisture migration

As water moves during freezing and thawing, so do water soluble minerals (keeps food frozen)

Blanching vegetables

Quick heating to put enzymes out of commission and slow the ripening process

Food Irradiation & Cold Sterilization

Have the same process of blanching vegetables, but don't use heat, but instead chemicals, electricity, and UV rays

How does the body generally lose fluids?

Through perspiration, urination, defecation, and respiration

How does perspiration cool the body?

It evaporates on the skin

Heat stress is exacerbated by...

high humidity, no wind, and sun exposure

Who are most prone to heat stress?

Obese people, children, untrained people, and sick athletes

What is the most important nutrient for the body to sustain life?


What is the amount of fluids the body needs dependent upon?

Age, body size, and activity level

What is gastric emptying slowed down by?

Large volumes and low carbohydrate levels

What is an electrolyte?

A substance, when in a solution, conducts electricity

What is an example of mineral interaction?

When there is an excess of one mineral in the body, it depletes another; Mn aggravates Fe deficit, Fe deficiency leads to Pb uptake, vitamin C enhances Fe uptake

What does Willet say about multivitamin supplements?

They are an inexpensive insurance policy

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